Die Joule-Thomson-Experimente—Anmerkungen zur Materialität eines Experimentes

  • Christian Sichau
Forschung

Abstract

To analyze science as practice and culture has become, since the early 1970s, the object of the “new” history and sociology of science. Hence, historians and sociologists pay now more attention to the role of experiment in science. In order to study experiments we need to think more carefully about instruments, apparatus and their use. In this article I put forward a method which allows to do both, to study the “materiality” of experiment as well as the activities involved in the production of experimental results: The “replication” of an experiment, ie. the reworking of historical experiments with a replica as close to the original as possible. A study of the experiments jointly done by James Joule, and William Thomson in 1852 will demonstrate what might be learned by this method about an experiment. The origins of instruments and the apparatus used in these experiments, their historical context and use will be discussed in detail. With the help of this case study I will try to show that the replication of experiments has much to contribute to an enhanced understanding of experimental practices.

Literatur

  1. Abrams, P:Historical Sociology. Open Books Publishing, 1982.Google Scholar
  2. Alter, P.:Wissenschaft, Staat, Mäzene. Anfänge moderner Wissenschaftspolitik in Großbritannien 1850–1920. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 1982.Google Scholar
  3. Buchwald, J.Z.: “Issues for the History of Experimentation”.Experimental Essays—Versuche zum Experiment, hrsg. von M. Heidelberger und F. Steinle. Nomos-Verlagsgesellschaft: Baden-Baden, 1998, S. 374–391.Google Scholar
  4. Bud & Cozzens (eds.):Invisible Connections: Instruments, Institutions, and Science. Bellingham, Wash, 1992.Google Scholar
  5. Butler, S.:Science and Technology Muserums. Leicester University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  6. Cardwell, D.S.L.:James Joule: a biography. Manchester University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  7. Hackmann, W.D.: “Instrumentation in the Theory and Practice of Science: Scientific Instruments as Evidence and as an Aid to Discovery”.Annali dell'Istituto e museo di storia della scienza di Firenze, 1985, 10 (2), S. 87–115.Google Scholar
  8. Hagner, M. & Rheinberger, H.-J.: “Experimental Systems, Objects of Investigation, and Spaces of Representation”,Experimental Essays—Versuche zum Experiment, hrsg. von M. Heidelberger und F. Steinle. Nomos-Verlagsgesellschaft: Baden-Baden, 1998, S. 355–373.Google Scholar
  9. Heering, P.:Das Grundgesetz der Elektrostatik. Experimentelle Replikation, wissenschaftshistorische Analyse und didaktische Konsequenzen. Dissertation, Universität Oldenburg, 1995.Google Scholar
  10. Heering, P.; Rieß, F.; Sichau, C.: “Lernen im Labor der Physikgeschichte”.Wechselwirkung 17, Feb./März 1995, S. 28–32.Google Scholar
  11. Heering, P.; Rieß, F.; Sichau, C.: “Historische Experimente auf dem Prüfstand”.Spektrum der Wissenschaft 12, 1999, S. 86–93.Google Scholar
  12. Hochreiter, W.:Vom Musentempel zum Lernort, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1994.Google Scholar
  13. Joule, J.P. & Thomson, W.: “On the Thermal Effects experienced by Air in rushing through small Apertures”The Scientific Papers, Joule, Vol. 2, S. 216–230.Google Scholar
  14. Joule, J.P. & Thomson, W.: “On the Thermal Effects of Fluids in Motion”.Philosophical Transactions 143, 1853, S. 357–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Joule, J.P. & Thomson, W.: “On the Thermal Effects of Fluids in Motion. Part II”.The Scientific Papers Joule, Vol. 2, S. 247-299.Google Scholar
  16. Kargon, R.H.:Science in Victorian Manchester. Enterprise and Expertise. Manchester University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. Morus, I.: “Industrious People: Biography and Nineteenth Century Physics”.Studies in the History & Philosophy of the Sciences, 1990, Vol. 21, No. 3, S. 519–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pickering, A.:The Mangle of Practice: Time, Agency, and Science. University of Chicago Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  19. Rieß, F.: “Erkenntnis durch Wiederholung—eine Methode zur Geschichtsschreibung des Experiments”.Experimental Essays—Versuche zum Experiment, hrsg. von M. Heidelberger und F. Steinle. Nomos-Verlagsgesellschaft: Baden-Baden, 1998, S. 157–172.Google Scholar
  20. Samuel, R.: “Workshop of the world: Steam Power and Hand Technology in mid-Victorian Britain”.History Workshop 3, 1977, S. 7–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schaffer, S.: “Accurate Measurement is an English Science”.The Values of Precision, hrsg. von M.N. Wise, Princeton University Press, 1995, S. 135–171.Google Scholar
  22. Schaffer, S.: “Places of Knowledge: The Case for an Historical Geography of the Sciences”, Vortrag, gehalten auf der Tagung: “Desiderata der neueren Wissenschaftsgeschichte” am Internationalen Forschungszentrum Kulturwissenschaften Wien am 5. Juni 1998.Google Scholar
  23. Sibum, H.-O.: “Reworking the Mechanical Value of Heat: Instruments of Precision and Gestures of Accuracy in Early Victorian England”.Studies in the History & Philosophy of the Sciences, 1995, 26, S. 73–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sichau, C.:Der Joule-Thomson-Effekt. Der Versuch einer Replikation. Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Universität Oldenburg, 1995.Google Scholar
  25. Sichau, C.: “Ein nationales Experiment und seine Auswirkungen auf einen wissenschaftlichen Versuch”Centaurus 40 (1998), S. 42–80.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  26. Smith, C.:The Science of Energy. A Cultural History of Energy Physics in Victorian Britain. London: Athlone Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  27. Smith, C. & Wise, M.N.:Energy and Empire. A biographical study of Lord Kelvin. Cambridge University Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  28. Sviedrys, R.: “The Rise of Physics Laboratories in Britain”.Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 7 (1976), S. 405–436.Google Scholar
  29. Thackray, A.: “Natural Knowledge in Cultural Context: The Manchester Model”.American Historical Review LXIX (1974), S. 672–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thomson, W.: “On the dynamical theory of heat (Part IV)”.Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1851 20 (2).Google Scholar
  31. Voskuhl, A.: “Recreating Herschel's actinometry: an essay in the historiography of experimental practice”.British Journal for the History of Science 30 (3), No. 106, 1997, S. 337–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wetton, J.:Scientific Instrument Making in Manchester 1790–1870. Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester, 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Sichau
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich PhysikCarl von Ossietzky Universität OldenburgOldenburg

Personalised recommendations