Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa utilis, poaceae) in Japan
- 154 Downloads
Two species are included in barnyard millet:Echinochloa utilis andE. frumentacea. These differ from each other in their genomic constitution and phylogeny. The former species originated fromE. crus-galli probably in eastern Asia, and is grown in Japan, Korea, and the northeastern part of China; the latter originated fromE. colona probably in tropical Asia, and is grown in Pakistan, India, and Nepal. “Japanese barnyard millet” is suggested as a suitable English common name forE. utilis; “Indian barnyard millet,” forE. frumentacea. In the past, Japanese barnyard millet was important in Japan as the staple food crop in districts where soil, weather conditions and irrigation systems were not suitable for paddy rice cultivation. When the rice crop suffered serious cool weather damage, the millet relieved people from starvation, especially in northeastern Japan. But the acreage devoted to the millet gradually decreased during and after the 1880s. Only the northern part of Iwate Prefecture is an exclusive Japanese barnyard millet cropping region at present. The breeding of cool- weather- resistant rice varieties and improvements in rice- growing techniques are mainly responsible for the decrease in acreage of the millet.
KeywordsEconomic Botany Rice Variety Rice Crop Foxtail Millet Genomic Constitution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- de Wet, J. M. J., K. E. P. Rao, M. H. Mengesha, and D. E. Brink. 1983. Domestication of sawa millet (Echinochloa colona) Econ. Bot. 37:283–291.Google Scholar
- Obara, T. 1936. On the nutritive value of Japanese barnyard millet. J. Agr. Chem. Soc. Japan 12: 1049–1058. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
- —. 1938. Studien der Getreidfenniche. Proc. Crop Sci. Japan 9:471–518.Google Scholar
- Ohga, I. 1950. On the seeds found in the coffins. Pages 103–117in Chusonji and the four generations of Fujiwara Family. Asahi Newspaper Office, Tokyo.Google Scholar
- Ohwi, J. 1962. On the Japanese species of the genusEchinochloa. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 20:50–55.Google Scholar
- Okuda, M. 1957. Cool weather damage in Japan. Toyo-Keizai-Shinpo-Sha, Tokyo. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
- Watanabe, N. 1970. A spodographic analysis of millet from prehistoric Japan. J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 5, 3:357–379.Google Scholar
- Yabuno, T. 1962. Cytotaxonomic studies on the two cultivated species and the wild relatives in the genusEchinochloa. Cytologia 27:296–305.Google Scholar
- —. 1966. Biosystematic study of the genusEchinochloa (Gramineae). Jap. J. Bot. 19:277–323.Google Scholar
- —. 1971. A note on barnyard millet. SABURAO Newsletter 3:43–45.Google Scholar