Advertisement

Economic Botany

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 353–359 | Cite as

Brazilian pepper—Its impact on people, animals and the environment

  • Julia F. Morton
Article

Abstract

Native to Brazil,Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, of the family Anacardiaceae, has been commonly cultivated in Florida for over 50 years as a dooryard ornamental. Use of its sprays of showy red fruits for Christmas decoration gave rise to the popular misnomer “Florida holly.” Too late it was found to become a large, spreading tree; aggressive seedlings began springing up near and far. Jungles ofSchinus have crowded out native vegetation over vast areas of Florida and the Bahamas, as in all the islands of Hawaii. When in bloom, the tree is a major source of respiratory difficulty and dermatitis; the fruits, in quantity, intoxicate birds and cause fatal trauma in four-footed animals. The abundant nectar yields a spicy commercial honey and beekeepers are opposed to eradication programs.

Keywords

Economic Botany Cardol Green Berry Fatal Trauma Schinus Terebinthifolius 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Anaya, A. L. & A. Gómez-Pompa. 1971. Inhibitión del crecimiento por el “Piru” (Schinus molle L.). Rev. de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 32: 99–109.Google Scholar
  2. Berry Banquet Leaves 115 Birds Dead in South Dade. Miami Herald, March 2, 1978. P. C-1.Google Scholar
  3. Blackwell, W. H., {jrJr.} & C. H. Dodson. 1968. Anacardiaceae. Pt. VI. Flora of Panama. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 54(3): 351–379.Google Scholar
  4. Borio, E. B. L., C. Cecy & Y. Yasumoto. 1973. Pharmacognostic study of the bark ofSchinus terebinthifolius Raddi—Anacardiaceae. Cienc. Cult. (São Paulo) 25(2): 631–634. [Abs.]Google Scholar
  5. Burkill, I. H. 1935. Dictionary of the economic products of the Malay peninsula. 2 vols. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.Google Scholar
  6. Cruz, G. L. 1965. Livro verde das plantas medicinais e industriais do Brasil. Vols. I & II. Velloso, S. A., Belo Horizonte, Brasil.Google Scholar
  7. Degener, O. 1946. Flora Hawaiiensis (Books 1–4). Otto Degener, Riverdale, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Feldman, H. T., M. D., P. A., Personal communication, May 26, 1977.Google Scholar
  9. Freise, F. W. 1934. Plantas medicinaes Brasileiras. Instituto Agronomico do Estado, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pp. 252–94.Google Scholar
  10. Gogue, G. J., C. J. Hurst & L. Bancroft. 1974. Growth inhibition bySchinus terebinthifolius. Paper presented at annual meeting of American Society for Horticultural Science, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Aug. 14, 1974.Google Scholar
  11. Gubb, A. S. 1911 (?). The Flora of the Riviera. Bailliere, Tindall & Cox, London.Google Scholar
  12. Hoehne, F. C. 1939. Plantas e substancias vegetais toxicas e medicinais. Departamento do Botanico do Estado, Sao Paulo, Brazil.Google Scholar
  13. Hosaka, E. Y. & A. Thistle. 1954. Noxious plants of the Hawaiian ranges. Exten. Bull. 62. Univ. of Hawaii, College of Agriculture, in cooperation with U.S. Dept. Agri.Google Scholar
  14. Hoyt, R. S. 1958. Check lists for ornamental plants of subtropical regions. Livingston Press, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  15. Kaistha, K. K. & L. B. Kier. 1962. Structural studies on terebinthone fromSchinus terebinthefolius. J. Pharm. Sci. 51(3): 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. — & —. 1962. Structural studies on terebinthone fromSchinus terebinthefolius. J. Pharm. Sci. 51(12): 1136–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Klukas, R. W. 1969. The exotic plant problem in Everglades National Park. The Anhinga (April): 1–3.Google Scholar
  18. Little, E. L., {jrJr.}, R. O. Woodbury & F. H. Wadsworth. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Vol. II. Agr. Handbk 449. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  19. Lloyd, H. A., Laboratory of Chemistry, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Personal communication, Jan. 19, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. —, T. M. Jaouni, S. L. Evans & J. F. Morton. 1977. Terpenes ofSchinus terebinthifolius. Phytochemistry 16: 1301–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manfred, L. 1947. 7,000 recetas botánicas, a base de 1300 plantas medicinales americanas. Editorial Kier, Buenos Aires, Argentina.Google Scholar
  22. Mors, W. B. 1966. Useful plants of Brazil. Holden-Day, Inc., San Francisco, California.Google Scholar
  23. Morton, J. F. 1954–1978. File notes of cases ofSchinus reactions investigated as Consultant for Poison Control Centers of Florida.Google Scholar
  24. —. 1958. Ornamental plants with poisonous properties. Proc. Florida State Horticultural Society 71: 372–380.Google Scholar
  25. —. 1969. Some ornamental plants excreting respiratory irritants. Proc. Florida State Horticultural Society 82: 415–121.Google Scholar
  26. -. 1976. Impact ofMelaleuca andSchinus on human health. Paper presented at Conference on Exotic Species sponsored by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and Florida Wildlife Federation, Sheraton-Fort Lauderdale Hotel, September 11.Google Scholar
  27. —. 1977. Plants poisonous to people in Florida and other warm areas. 2nd printing. Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  28. Nehrling, H. 1944. My garden in Florida. Vol. I. American Eagle, Estero, Florida.Google Scholar
  29. Penna, M. 1941. Dicionario brasileiro de plantas medicinais. Oficinas Graflcas de a Noite, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  30. Stone, B. C. 1970–71. The Flora of Guam. Micronesica Vol. 6.Google Scholar
  31. Whitney, C. M. (editor). 1955. The Bermuda Garden. The Garden Club of Bermuda, Hamilton, Bermuda.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia F. Morton
    • 1
  1. 1.Morton Colectanea University of MiamiCoral Gables

Personalised recommendations