Japanese Journal of Ichthyology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 147–163 | Cite as

Intra- and interspecific social organization among three herbivorous cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika

  • Masanori Kohda
Article
  • 84 Downloads

Abstract

Intra- and interspecific social organization among 3 coexisting herbivorous cichlids,Tropheus moorii, Petrochromis trewavasae andP. orthognathus, were studied at a rocky shore in Lake Tanganyika. Individuals of all species maintained discrete intra- and interspecific territories, exceptT. moorii andP. trewavasae whose feeding territories overlapped. Territory owners attacked smaller individuals but exhibited displays towards larger neighbours, irrespective of species. This observation suggests that both intra- and interspecifically, these cichlids interact in the context of size-dependent dominance hierarchies. Removal experiments showed that smallerT. moorii benefitted fromP. trewavasae in the maintenance of their territory borders against largerP. orthognathus. Interspecific dominance hierarchy and commensalism among these cichlids are not species specific, but change dynamically in relation to the difference in body size between component individuals. Mating territories of maleP. orthognathus andT. moorii are compared to their feeding territories, and territory forms are discussed. It is suggested that an approach incorporating the concept of an interspecific society may play an important role in the elucidation of guild structure and function.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Aarssen, L. W. 1983. Ecological combining ability and competitive combining ability in plants: toward a general evolutionary theory of coexistence in system of competition. Am. Nat., 122: 707–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allee, W. C., A. E. Emerson, O. Park, T. Park and K. P. Schmidt. 1949. Principle of Animal ecology. Saunders, Philadelphia, 837 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Brichard, P. 1978. Fishes of Lake Tanganyika. T.F.H. Publication, Neptune City, 448 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Connell, J. H. 1983. On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. Am. Nat., 122: 661–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Connell, J. H. and E. Orias, 1964. The ecological regulation of species diversity. Am. Nat., 98: 399–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Conner, E. F. 1979. The assembly of species communities: chance or competition? Ecology, 60: 1132–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cunjak, R. A. and J. M. Green. 1984. Species dominance by brook trout and rainbow trout in a simulated stream environment. Trans. Am. Fish. Sic., 113: 737–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diamond, J. and T. J. Case, eds. 1986. Community ecology. Harper and Row Publ., New York, 665 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Fryer, G. and T. D. Iles. 1972. The cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 641 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Gause, G. F. 1981. The struggle for existence. Shisakusha, Tokyo, 204 pp. (In Japanese.) Transrated from the English by T. Yoshida.Google Scholar
  11. Hinde, R. A. 1956. The biological significance of the territories in birds. Ibis, 98: 340–369.Google Scholar
  12. Hori, M., K. Yamaoka and K. Takamura. 1983. Abundance and microdistribution of cichlid fishes on a rocky shore of Lake Tanganyika. Afr. Stud. Monogr., 3: 25–38.Google Scholar
  13. Imanishi, K. 1958. Society in living things. Rikusuisha, Tokyo, 289 pp. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  14. Ishigaki, K. 1984. Study on the chars. Iwanami-shoten, Tokyo, 216 pp. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  15. Ito, Y. 1987. Comparative ecology. 2nd ed. Iwanamishoten, Tokyo, 421 pp. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  16. Kawanabe, H. 1959. Food competition among fishes in some rivers of Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Mem. Coll. Sci. Univ. Kyoto, 26: 253–268.Google Scholar
  17. Kawanabe, H. 1981. Territorial behaviour ofTropheus moorei (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) with a preliminary consideration on the territorial forms in animals. Afr. Stud. Monogr., 1: 101–108.Google Scholar
  18. Keenleyside, M. H. A. 1979. Diversity and adaptation in fish behaviour. Spring-Verlag, New York, 208 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Kikkawa, J. and D. J. Anderson, eds. 1986. Community ecology: pattern and process. Blackwell Sci. Publ., Melbourne, 432 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Kimoto, S. and H. Takeda, eds. 1987. Insect communities in Japan. Tokai Univ. Press, Tokyo, 167 pp. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  21. Kohda, M. 1981. Interspecific territoriality and agonistic behavior of a temperate pomacentrid fish,Eupomacentrus altus (Pisces; Pomacentridae). Z. Tierpsychol., 56: 205–216.Google Scholar
  22. Kohda, M. 1984. Intra- and interspecific territoriality of a temperate damselfish,Eupomacentrus altus (Teleostei: Pomacentridae). Physiol. Ecol. Japan, 21: 35–52.Google Scholar
  23. Kuwamura, T. 1986. Parental care and mating systems of cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika: a preliminary field survey. J. Ethol., 4(2): 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuwamura, T. 1987. Male mating territory and sneaking in a maternal mouthbrooder,Pseudosimochromis curvifrons (Pisces; Cichlidae). J. Ethol., 5(2): 203–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lowe-McConnell, R. H. 1987. Ecological studies in tropical fish communities. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 382 pp.Google Scholar
  26. May, R. M. 1981. Models for two interacting populations. Pages 78–104in R. M. May, ed. Theoretical ecology, principles and applications. 2nd ed. Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford.Google Scholar
  27. Mbomba, N. B. 1986. Comparative feeding ecology of Aufwuchs eating cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika with reference to their developmental changes. Physiol. Ecol. Japan, 23: 79–108.Google Scholar
  28. Miller, R. J. 1978. Agonistic behaviour in fishes and terrestrial vertebrates. Pages 281–311in E. S. Reese and F. J. Lighter, eds. Contrast in Behaviour. John Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Morisita, M. 1976. Animal Society. Kyoritsu Shuppan, Tokyo, 190pp. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  30. Morse, D. H. 1970. Ecological aspects of some mixedspecies foraging flocks of birds. Ecol. Monogr., 40: 119–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murray, B. G. 1981. The origin of adaptive interspecific territorialism. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc., 56: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Myrberg, A. A., Jr. and R. E. Thresher. 1974. Interspecific aggression and its relevance to the concept of territoriality in reef fishes. Am. Zool., 14: 81–96.Google Scholar
  33. Nakamura, N. 1976. Bird society. Shisakusha, Tokyo, 298 pp. (In Japanese.)Google Scholar
  34. Orians, G. H. and M. F. Willson. 1964. Interspecific territories of birds. Ecology, 45: 736–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pianka, E. R. 1980. Evolutionary ecology. 2nd ed. Soki Shobou, Tokyo, 420pp. (In Japanese.) Translated from the English by Y. Ito et al.Google Scholar
  36. Poll, M. 1956. Poissons Cichlidae. Result. Scient. Explor, Hydrobiol, Lac Tanganika (1946–1947) III, Fasc., 5b: 1–619.Google Scholar
  37. Robertson, D. R. 1984. Cohabitation of competing territorial damselfishes on a Caribbean coral reef. Ecology, 65: 1121–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Robertson, D. R. and N. V. C. Polunin. 1981. Coexistence: symbiotic sharing of feeding territories and algal food by some coral reef fishes from the western Indian Ocean. Mar. Biol., 62: 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roughgarden, J. 1983. Competition and theory in community ecology. Am. Nat., 122: 583–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Takamura, K. 1984. Interspecific relationships of Aufwuchs-eating fishes in Lake Tanganyika. Env. Biol. Fish., 10: 225–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wilson, E. O. 1975. Sociobiology: the new synthesis. Belknap Press, Cambridge, 697 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Yamaoka, K. 1983. A revision of cichlid fishes genusPetrochromis from Lake Tanganyika, with description of a new species. Japan. J. Ichthyol., 30(2): 129–141.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masanori Kohda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations