Advertisement

Lake Balkhash, Kazakhstan

Article

Abstract

Lake Balkhash is a large (18,000 km3), closed, and slightly saline lake in the south-west of Kazakhstan. It is divided into two basins, a south-western and an eastern basin. These have somewhat different limnological conditions, but the most obvious one is that the south-western basin has a salinity of <2 g L−1 whereas the salinity of the eastern basin is ∼4 g L−1. Numerous fish and invertebrate introductions, many successful, have been made. In 1969, a dam impounding the Kapchagay reservoir was constructed on the River Ili, the major river flowing into the lake. The impoundment of water in this reservoir caused a fall of some 1.5 m in the water-level of the lake. This fall, together with other events on the catchment, caused considerable damage to reedswamps in the lake, to the fishery and to conservation values. A number of suggestions has been made on how to prevent further damage. Some, particularly those involving a moratorium on further filling of Kapchagay reservoir and irrigation, have been implemented, at least in part. This has caused some remission in environmental damage and provides for cautious optimism with regard to the lake’s future. Even so, the environmental status of the lake remains vulnerable and many dangers persist.

Key Words

Balkhash River Ili Kapchagay Reservoir Kazakhstan Iimnology fisheries saline 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrosov, V.N., 1973. [Lake Balkhash.] Nauka, Leningrad. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  2. Amirgaliev, N.A., Grigorieva, E.N., and Shilnikovskaya, L.S., 1984. [Biogenic transfer through rivers into Lake Balkhash.]Vodnye Resursy 6:97–103. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  3. Not seen by author, but referred to by Abrosov (1973). Berg, L.S., 1962. [Subdivision of the Palaearctic and Amur regions in zoogeographical regions, based on the distribution of freshwater fish]. Selected Papers,5: USSR Academy of Sciences. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  4. Braslavskii, A.P., and Ostroumova, L.P., 1988. [Calculation of evaporation from the water surface of Lake Balkhash using an improved method.]Collected papers of the Kazakhstan NIGMI 101:52–78. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  5. Chistyaeva, S.P., 1977. [Method for calculating the distribution of minerals in Lake Balkhash.]Collected papers of the Kazakhstan NIGMI 58:96–113. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  6. Dukravets, G.M., 1983. [Formation of ichthyofauna in the Kapchagay reservoir.] In: Studies of zooproduction in water bodies of the Ili river basin. pp. 59–66. Collected papers of the Kazakhstan State University, Alma-Ata. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  7. Eriskovskii, A.P., and Makhniboroda, E.I., 1983. [Evaluation of the impact of Lake Balkhash water level and the river Ili discharge on the resources and yield of the principal economic fish species.]Vodnye Resursy 4:160–165. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  8. Isaev, A.I., and Karpova, E.I., 1989. [Reservoir Fisheries]. VO Agropromizdat, Moskva. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  9. Ratkovich, D.Ya, Ivanova, L.V., Novikova, N.M., and Frolov, A.V., 1990. [The problem of Lake Balkhash.]Vodnye Resursy 3: 5–23. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  10. Not seen by author, but referred to by Abrosov (1973). Rylov, V.M., 1933. [Information on plankton at Lake Balkhash.] [Lake studies of the USSR]Issled. Ozer. SSR. 4. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  11. Sadaukasova, R.E., Vorobieva, N.B. and Ponomareva, L.P., 1985. [Feeding and feeding relationships among young fish in Lake Balkhash.]Gidrobiologicheskii Zhurnal 21(6):29–34. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  12. Not seen by author, but referred to by Abrosov (1973). Samonou, A.M., 1944. [Information of benthos of Lake Balkhash.]Fondy Balkhash St. Otd., UNIORK. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  13. Shapiro, S.M., 1988. [Groundwater and the water-salinity balance of Lake Balkhash.]Vodnye Resursy 5:180–183. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  14. Shnitnikov, A.V., 1936. [Elements of the water and salinity balance in Lake Balkash.]Collected papers of the Salinity Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 11:5–82. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  15. Skotselyas, I.I., 1987. [Losses of the Ili river discharge below the Kapchagay gorge.]Collected papers of the Kazakhstan NIGMI 97:24–34. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  16. Sosedov, I.S., Filatova, L.N., and Kiktenko, O.V., 1978. [Calculation and large-scale mapping of water balance in glaciated basins.]Collected research papers on glaciology 32:21–36. MGK Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moskva. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  17. Starodubcev, V.M., Nekrasova, T.F., and Popov, Yu.M., 1983. [Meliorative changes in the upper part of the Ili delta after the regulation of the river flow.]Vodnye Resursy 5:75–84. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  18. Tarasov, M.N., 1961. [Hydrochemistry of Lake Balkhash.] Academy of Sciences of the USSR. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  19. Tsytsenko, K.V., 1988. [Ili-Balkhash problem.] In: [Man and Elements]. pp. 100–102. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  20. Williams, W.D., and Aladin, N.V., 1991. The Aral Sea: A limnological review of recent changes.Aquatic Conservation 1:1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yunusov, G.R., 1950. [Water balance of Lake Balkhash. Problems of the river Ili water resources utilization.] Collected papers of the Ili expedition. pp. 141–189. Academy of Sciences of the Kazakhstan SSR, Alma-Ata. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  22. Not seen by author, but referred to by Abrosov (1973). Zhadin, V.I., 1952. [Molluscs of freshwaters and saline waters of the USSR.]Izd. AN SSSR, Moscow, Leningrad. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  23. Zyryanova, N.F., 1983. [Notes on the hydrochemistry of the Kapchagay reservoir.] In: [Studies of zooproduction in water bodies of the Ili river basin.] pp. 11–19. Collected papers of the Kazakhstan State University, Alma-Ata. [In Russian]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Petr
    • 1
  1. 1.Fisheries DepartmentFAORomeItaly

Personalised recommendations