Economic Botany

, 30:409 | Cite as

Some observations on photoperiodism and the development of annual forms of domesticated cottons

  • S. G. Stephens


Observations made over the last fifteen to twenty years have discovered no primitive forms of G.barbadense L. orG. hirsutum L. (other than G.hirsutum racelatifolium Hutchinson) which are capable of flowering during the long summer days of temperate latitudes. Annual Upland cottons, grown in the southern United States since the mid-eighteenth century, were probably derived from perennial day-neutral forms of Mexican racelatifolium, though not necessarily by direct introduction from Mexico into the United States.

The origin of Sea Island cottons (day-neutral forms of G.barbadense), which were formerly grown on the southeastern seaboard of the United States since the mid-eighteenth century, remains obscure. No primitive forms of this species, capable of flowering during the long summer days of temperate latitudes, have been found.

An experiment is reported in which it has been possible to synthesize a day-neutral form of G.barbadense through introgression between primitive short-day sensitive forms of G.barbadense and G.hirsutum, both native to the Caribbean region. It is suggested that the ancestors of Sea Island cottons may have originated naturally by a similar mechanism involving the same species.


Economic Botany Fiber Length Upland Cotton Temperate Latitude Egyptian Cotton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Mauney, J.R. and L. L. Phillips. 1963. Influence of daylength and night temperature on flowering in Gossypium. Bot. Gaz.124: 278–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kohel, R.J. and T. R. Richmond. 1962. The genetics of flowering response in cotton. IV. Genetics47: 1535–1542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    The regional collection of cotton species, interspecific hybrids, races ofGossypium hirsutum and genetically marked stocks. 1956. Regional Research Project S-l, College Station, Texas. (Unpublished M.S.).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Raynal, G. T. F. 1774. Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rohr, J. P. B. von. 1791. Anmerkungen über den cattunbau zum nuzen der dänischen westindischen colonien. J. F. Hammerich. Altona und Leipzig.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lasteyrie, C.P. de. 1808. Du cotonnier et de sa culture. Bertrand, Paris. Pp. 446.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amaral, L. 1958. Historia geral da agricultura brasiliera. Vol. 2. Compania Editora Nacional. São Paulo. (2nd edition).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bittencourt, J. de S. 1798. Memoria sobre a plantacão dos algodoes. Pp. 257–272.In O auxiliador da industria nacional 1841. Impresão regia. Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gutierrez, M., J. Vrdolijak, A. A. Ricciardi, I. N. Tiranti, R. Carnevali, A. C. Galván, and M. J. Arturi. 1964. Variación geo gráfica deGossypium barbadense en el extremo austral de su dispersión Americana. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (Argentina) Bol. No. 31. 102 pp.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tussac, Fr. R. de. 1818. Flore des Antilles, ou histoire générale botanique, rurale, et économique, des végétaux indigènes des Antilles. Paris, chez l’auteur. (Libr. Congr. QK 225.T9).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tozzer, A.M. 1941. Landa’s Relacion de las cosas de Yucatan. A Translation. Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Vol. 18.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cook, O. F. and C. B. Doyle. 1927. Acala cotton, a superior Upland variety from southern Mexico. U.S.D.A. Circ. 2, Pp. 30.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moore, J.H. 1956. Cotton breeding in the Old South. Agricultural History30: 95–104.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bossu, J.B. 1771. Travels through Louisiana. Vol. 1: 377–379. T. Davis, London.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    DeBow, J.D.B. 1846. The cotton plant. Commercial Review1: 245–320.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pratz, L.P.du. 1774. The history of Louisiana, or of the western parts of Virginia and Carolina. T. Becket, London.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stephens, S.G. and L. L. Phillips. 1972. The history and geographical distribution of a polymorphic system in New World cottons. Biotropica4: 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    —. 1974. The use of two polymorphic systems, nectary fringe hairs and corky alleles, as indicators of phylogenetic relationships in New World cottons. Biotropica.6: 194–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hutchinson, J.B. and H. L. Manning. 1945. The Sea Island cottons. Emp. Jour. Expt. Agric.13: 80–92.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Watt, G. 1907. The wild and cultivated cotton plants of the world. Longman’s, Green & Co., London. Pp. 406.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Owen, E.R.J. 1969. Cotton and the Egyptian economy. 1820–1914. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Pp. 416.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewis, C.F. and T. R. Richmond. 1957. The genetics of flowering response in cotton I. Fruiting behavior ofGossypium hirsutum var.marie-galante in a cross with a variety of cultivated American Upland cotton. Genetics42: 499–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    — and —. 1960. The genetics of flowering response in cotton II. Inheritance of flowering response in aGossypium barbadense cross. Genetics45: 79–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Waddle, B.M., C. F. Lewis, and T. R. Richmond. 1961. The genetics of flowering response in cotton III. Fruiting behavior ofGossypium hirsutum racelatifolium in a cross with a variety of cultivated American Upland cotton. Genetics46: 427–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stephens, S.G. 1967. Evolution under domestication of the New World cottons. Ciencia e cultura.19: 118–134.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boulanger, J. and D. Pinheiro. 1971. Evolution de la production cotonnière au nordest du Bresil. Coton et Fibres Tropicales26: 319–353.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stephens, S.G. 1974. Geographic and taxonomic distribution of anthocyanin genes in New World cottons. Jour. Genet.61: 128–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 1960. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    The regional collection ofGossypium germplasm. A.R.S./U.S.D.A. Publ. ARS-H-2 August, 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. G. Stephens
    • 1
  1. 1.Professor of Genetics EmeritusNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleigh

Personalised recommendations