Economic Botany

, 37:396 | Cite as

Possible role of ultraviolet radiation in evolution ofCannabis chemotypes

  • David W. Pate
Article

Abstract

The damaging effects of UV-B radiation have apparently affected the amounts of ultraviolet-absorbing secondary compounds in some plants. A similar role for Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol may explain the high levels of this compound inCannabis from areas of intense ambient UV-B. Further research is needed to determine whether UV-B radiation serves only as a selection pressure or if UV-B-induced stress may also directly stimulate production.

Literature Cited

  1. Allwardt, W. H., P. A. Babcock, A. B. Segelman, and J. M. Cross. 1972. Photochemical studies of marijuana (Cannabis) constituents. J. Pharm. Sci. 61: 1994–1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous. 1976. Taken from pricing information published throughout that year under “Transhigh market quotations” for Marrakech, Morocco. High Times Mag.Google Scholar
  3. Bergel, F. 1965.In Hashish: Its Chemistry and Pharmacology, Wostenholme, G. E. W., and J. Knight, ed. Little, Brown, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  4. —, and H. Sieper. 1965.In Hashish: Its Chemistry and Pharmacology, Wostenholme, G. E. W., and J. Knight, ed. Little, Brown, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  5. Boucher, F., L. Cosson, and J. Unger. 1974. LeCannabis sativa L.: Races Chemiques ou Varietes. PI. Med. Phytother. 8: 20–31.Google Scholar
  6. Bouquet, J. 1950.Cannabis. U. N. Bull. Narcotics 2: 14–30.Google Scholar
  7. Caldwell, M. M. 1968. Solar ultraviolet radiation as an ecological factor for alpine plants. Ecol. Monogr. 38: 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. —. 1971. Solar ultraviolet radiation and the growth and development of higher plants.In Photophysiology, Giese, A. C., ed, Vol.6. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. -, W. F. Campbell, and W. B. Sisson. 1974. Plant response to elevated U.V. intensities. Proc. 3rd Conf., Climatic Impact Assessment Program, Dept. Transport. Doc. TSC-OST-74-15. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  10. Coutselinis, A., and J. Miras. 1970. The effects of the smoking process on cannabinols. U.N. Document ST/SOA/SER.S/23 Oct. 30. New York.Google Scholar
  11. Davis, T. W. M., C. G. Farmilo, and M. Osadchuk. 1963. Identification and origin determination ofCannabis by gas and paper chromatography. Anal. Chem. 35: 1751–1755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eddy, N. B. 1964. The question ofCannabis: aCannabis bibliography. U.N. Document E/CN7/ 479 Sept. 15.Google Scholar
  13. Fairbairn, J. W. 1972. The trichomes and glands ofCannabis sativa L. U.N. Bull. Narcotics 24: 29–32.Google Scholar
  14. —. 1976. The pharmacognosy ofCannabis.In Cannabis and Health, Graham, J. D. P., ed. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  15. —, and J. A. Liebmann. 1974. The cannabinoid content ofCannabis sativa L. grown in England. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 26: 413–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fetterman, P. S., E. S. Keith, C. W. Waller, O. Guerrero, N. J. Doorenboos, and M. W. Quimby. 1971. Mississippi-grownCannabis saliva L.: preliminary observation on chemical definition of phenotype and variations in tetrahydrocannabinol content versus age, sex, and plant part. J. Pharm. Sci. 60: 1246–1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grlic, Lj. 1962. A comparative study on some chemical and biological characteristics of various samples ofCannabis resin. U.N. Bull. Narcotics 14: 37–46.Google Scholar
  18. Haney, A., and B. B. Kutscheid. 1973. Quantitative variation in the chemical constituents of marihuana from stands of naturalizedCannabis sativa L. in east-central Illinois. Econ. Bot. 27: 193–203.Google Scholar
  19. —, and R. Mechoulam. 1970.In The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis, Joyce, R. B., and S. H. Curry, ed. Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  20. Hermonn, H. 1971.In Cultivation, extraction, and analysis ofCannabis sativa L., Doorenboos, N. J., P. S. Fetterman, M. W. Quimby, and C. E. Turner. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 191: 3–14.Google Scholar
  21. Kimura, M., and K. Okamoto. 1970. Distribution of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in fresh wildCannabis. Experientia 26: 819–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Latta, R. P., and B. J. Eaton. 1975. Seasonal fluctuations in cannabinoid content of Kansas marijuana. Econ. Bot. 29: 153–163.Google Scholar
  23. Mechoulam, R., ed. 1973. Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Metabolism and Clinical Effects. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. —, and Y. Gaoni. 1965. Hashish IV. The isolation and structure of cannabinolic, cannabidiolic and cannabigerolic acids. Tetrahedron 21: 2323–2329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meyer, A. D., and E. O. Seitz. 1942. Ultraviolette Strahlen ihre Erzeugung, Messung, und Anwendung in Medizin, Biologie, und Technik. DeGruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  26. Montemartini, L. 1926. Effeti del trattamento del polline col metodo pirovano sopra la proporizione dei sessi nellaCannabis sativa L. Rendiconti Real Istituto Lombardo, 2 Ser. 59: 748–752.Google Scholar
  27. Pate, D. W. 1979. The phytochemical ecology ofCannabis. M.S. thesis. Dept. Biology, Univ. Missouri-St. Louis.Google Scholar
  28. Phillips, R., R. Turk, J. Manno, N. Jain, and R. Forney. 1970. Seasonal variation in cannabinolic content of Indiana marihuana. J. Forensic Sci. 151: 191–200.Google Scholar
  29. Rupert, C. S. 1964. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet damage.In Photophysiology, Giese, A. C., ed. Vol. 2. Academic Press,New York.Google Scholar
  30. Schulze, R., and K. Grafe. 1969. Consideration of sky ultraviolet radiation in the measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation.In The Biologic Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation, Urbach, F., ed. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Shoyama, Y., M. Yagi, I. Nishioka, and T. Yamaunchi. 1975. Biosynthesis of cannabinoid acids. Phytochemistry 14: 2189–2192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Small, E., and H. D. Beckstead. 1973. Common cannabinoid phenotypes in 350 stocks ofCannabis. Lloydia 36: 144–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. —,—, and A. Chan. 1975. The evolution of cannabinoid phenotypes inCannabis. Econ. Bot. 29:219–232.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, K. C. 1964. Photochemistry of the Nucleic Acids.In Photophysiology, Giese, A. C., ed, Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. —. 1974. The cellular repair of radiation damage.In Sunlight and Man: Normal and Abnormal Photobiological Responses, Pathak, M. A., L. C. Harber, M. Seiji, and A. Kukita, ed, Fitzpatrick, T. B., consulting ed. Univ. Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  36. Stafford, H. A. 1965. Flavonoids and related phenolic compounds produced in the first internode ofSorghum vulgare Pers. in darkness and in light. Pl. Physiol. 40: 130–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stanley, R G., and H. F. Linskens. 1974. Pollen: Biology, Biochemistry, Management. Chap. 15, Pollen pigments. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Turner, C. E., P. S. Fetterman, K. W. Hadley, and J. E. Urbanek. 1975. Constituents ofCannabis sativa L. X. Cannabinoid profile of a Mexican variant and its possible correlation to pharmacological activity. Acta Pharm. Jugoslav.25: 7–16.Google Scholar
  39. —, and K. Hadley. 1973. Constituents ofCannabis sativa L. II. Absence of cannabidiol in an African variant. J. Pharm. Sci. 62: 251–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Waller, C. W., J. J. Johnson, J. Buelke, and C. E. Turner. 1976. Marihuana: an annotated bibliography. MacMillan Information, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Wellman, E. 1976. Specific ultraviolet effects in plant morphogenesis. Photochem. & Photobiol. 24: 659–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • David W. Pate
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of PharmacognosyUniversity of Mississippi, University
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations