Reference station network based RTK systems-concepts and progress

Article

Abstract

The limitation of single base “real-time kinematic” (RTK) techniques is the distance between base receiver and the rover receiver due to distance-dependent biases, namely orbit bias, ionosphere bias and troposphere bias. Techniques have been developed to overcome this distance dependence using a network of GPS reference stations spread over a wide geographic area. Because the measurement biases will be modelled and corrected for, the positioning accuracy will be almost independent of the inter-receiver distance. Since the mid-1990s investigators have been investigating the optimal means of processing reference receiver data, and then providing ‘correction’ information to users, in real-time. This technique is now generally referred to as Network-RTK. In 1993 the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) established a Special Study Group on “Wide Area Modelling for Precise Satellite Positioning” . This paper focusses on the progress made during the last few years in designing Network-RTK architectures and the associated data processing algorithms and issues. Although many university investigators have been researching the fundamental challenges in functional and stochastic modelling, currently there is only one commercially available Network-RTK product, the Trimble VRS. However, with the use of the Internet as the primary data communication link, it is predicted that many more implementations of Network-RTK will come ‘online’, at various sites around the world, over the next few years.

Key words

network RTK VRS correction generation functional models stochastic model refinements 

CLC Number

P 228.4 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Blewitt G. Carrier Phase Ambiguity Resolution for the Global Positioning System Applied to Geodetic Baselines up to 2000 km,Journal of Geophysical Research, 1989,94(B8): 10187–10203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Dong D N, Bock Y. Global Positioning System Network Analysis with Phase Ambiguity Resolution Applied to Crustal Deformation Studies in California,Journal of Geophysical Research, 1989,94(B4): 3949–3966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Han S, Rizos C. GPS Network Design and Error Mitigation for Real-time Continuous Array Monitoring Systems.9th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, Missouri, 17–20 September, Alexandria: US ION, 1996: 1827–1836.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Wübbena G, Bagge A, Seeber G,et al. Reducing Distance Dependent Errors for Real-Time Precise DGPS Applications by Establishing Reference Station Networks.9th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U.S. Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, Missouri, 17–20 September, Alexandria: US ION, 1996: 1845–1852.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Han S.Carrier Phase-Based hong-Range GPS Kinematic Positioning, Sydney: The University of New South Wales. 1997.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Raquet J F, Lachapelle G, Fortes L. Use of a Covariance Analysis Technique for Predicting Performance of Regional Area Differential Code and Carrier-Phase Networks.11th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div. of the U S Institute of Navigation, Nashville, Tennessee, Alexandria: US ION, 1998. 1345–1354.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Vollath U, Buecherl A, Landau H. Multi-Base RTK Positioning Using Virtual Reference Stations.13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 123–131.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Townsend B, VanDierendonck A J, Neumann J,et al. A Proposal for Standardized Network RTK Messages.13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19-22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 1871–1878.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Euler H J, Keenan C R, Zebhauser B E,et al. Study of a Simplified Approach in Utilizing Information from Permanent Reference Station Arrays.14th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U.S. Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 11–14 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2001. 379–391.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Hu G, Khoo H S, Goh P C,et al. Testing of Singapore Integrated Multiple Reference Station Network (SIMRSN) for Precise Fast Static Positioning.European GNSS Conf GNSS2002, Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 May, CD-ROM proc. 2002.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Jia M. Mitigation of Systematic Errors of GPS Positioning Using Vector Semiparametric Models.13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 1938–1947.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Ge L, Han S, Rizos C. Multipath Mitigation Using an Adaptive Filter.GPS Solutions, 2000,4(2): 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Santerre R, Langley RB, Ueno M,et al. Improvement of Kinematic OTF-GPS Positioning Over Long Distances: Applications to Bathymetric Surveys.Canadian Hydrographic Conference 2000, Montréal, Canada, 15–19 May (CD-Rom Proceedings). 2000.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    St-Pierre C, Santerre R, Parrot D. Mprovement of OTF-Kinematic GPS Positioning Over Long Distances Using Ionospheric Regional Modelling,Geomatica, Journal of the Canadian Institute of Geomatics, 1999,53(4): 395–403.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Colombo OL, Evans A G, Vigo M I,et al. Long-Baseline (>1000 km), Sub-Decimeter Kinematic Positioning of Buoys at Sea, with Potential Application to Deep-Sea Studies.13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U.S. Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 1476–1484.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Dai L, Wang J, Rizos C,et al. Predicting Atmospheric Biases for Real-Time Ambiguity Resolution in GPS/Glonass Reference Stations Networks.Journal of Geodesy, 2003,76: 617–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Brunner F K, Hartinger H, Troyer L. GPS Signal Diffraction Modelling: The Stochastic SIGMA-δ Model.Journal of Geodesy, 1999,73: 259–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Wieser A, Brunner F K. An Extended Weight Model for GPS Phase Observations,Earth, Planets & Space, 2000,52:777–782.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Barnes J B, Ackroyd N, Cross P A. Stochastic Modelling for Very High Precision Real-time Kinematic GPS in an Engineering Environment.XXI Congress of the International Federation of Surveyors, 6 (ISBN 0-85406-902-X), 1998. 61–76.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    [20]Wang J, Satirapod C, Rizos C. Stochastic Assessment of GPS Carrier Phase Measurements for Precise Static Relative Positioning.Journal of Geodesy, 2002,76(2): 95–104.CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Han S, Johnson R. Survey Quality Real-Time GPS: Solving the Time to Fix vs. Reliability Paradox,14th lnt Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 11–14 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2001. 1550–1557.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Odijk D. Weighting Ionospheric Corrections to Improve Fast GPS Positioning Over Medium Distances:13th lnt Tech. Meeting of the Satellite Div of the Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 1113–1123.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Chen H Y, Rizos C, Han S. From Simulation to Implementation: Low-Cost Densification of Permanent GPS Networks in Support of Geodetic Applications.Journal of Geodesy, 2001,75(9–10): 515–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Gao Y, Li Z, McLellan J F. Carrier Phase Based Regional area Differential GPS for Decimeter-Level Positioning and Navigation,10th lnt Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, Missouri, 16–19 September, Alexandria: US ION, 1997. 1305–1313.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Gao Y, Li Z. Ionosphere Effect and Modelling for Regional Area Differential GPS Network.11th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Nashville, Tennessee, 15–18 September, Alexandria: US ION, 1998. 91–97.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Wanninger L. Improved Ambiguity Resolution by Regional Differential Modelling of the Ionospherez.8th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, San Diego, California, 12–15 September, Alexandria: US ION, 1995. 55–62.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Wübbena G, Schmitz M, Menge F,et al. Automated Absolute Field Calibration of GPS Antennas in Real-Time.13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 2512–2522.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Fotopoulos G, Cannon M E. An Overview of Multi-reference Station Methods for Cm-Level Positioning.GPS Solutions, 2001,4(3): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Raquet J F.Development Of A Method For Kinematic GPS Carrier-Phase Ambiguity Resolution Using Multiple Reference Receivers, PhD Thesis, Dept. of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada. 1998.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Marel H van der. Virtual GPS Reference Stations in The Netherlands,llth Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Nashville, Tennessee, 15–18 September, Alexandria: US ION, 1998. 49–58.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Wanninger L. The Performance of Virtual Reference Stations in Active Geodetic GPS-Networks Under Solar Maximum Conditions.12th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Nashville, Tennessee, 14–17 September, Alexandria: US ION, 1999. 1419–1427.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Chen X, Han S, Rizos C,et al. Improving Real-Time Positioning Efficiency Using the Singapore Integrated Multiple Reference Station Network (SIMRSN), 13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 9–18.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Fotopoulos G. Parameterization of Carrier Phase Corrections Based on a Regional Network of Reference Stations,13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U S Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 1091–1102.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Jackson M E, Meertens C, Ruud O,et al. Real-Time GPS Data Transmission Using VSAT Technology.GPS Solutions, 2002,5(4): 10–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Teunissen P J G, de Jonge PJ, Tiberius CCJM. A New Way to Fix Carrier-Phase Ambiguities.GPS World, 1995,6(4): 58–61.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Euler H J, Ziegler C. Advances in Ambiguity Resolution for Surveying Type Applications,13th Int Tech Meeting of the Satellite Div of the U.S. Institute of Navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, 19–22 September, Alexandria: US ION, 2000. 95–103.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Teunissen PJG, Joosten P, Odijk D. The Reliability of GPS Ambiguity Resolution.GPS Solutions, 1999,2(3): 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Surveying and Spatial Information SystemsUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Thales NavigationSanta ClaraUSA

Personalised recommendations