Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 51–60

Perceptions of control, physical exercise, and psychological adjustment to breast cancer in South African women

  • Barbara A. Bremer
  • Cathleen T. Moore
  • Barbara M. Bourbon
  • Dawn R. Hess
  • Kristin L. Bremer
Empirical Research


Psychological adjustment and locus of control were measured in 257 South African women both with and without breast cancer. Adjustment was defined as positive affect, negative affect, the balance between the two, satisfaction with various domains of life, and an overall sense of well-being. Health locus of control was measured separately for internal, external, and chance loci. The instrument’s reliability was comparable to that reported for U.S. norms. The women with breast cancer reported significantly lower affect and had lower internal and higher external and chance perceptions of control. The more invasive the surgical treatment, the greater the negative impact on adjustment. Data suggested that using written instructions to stress the importance of exercise to rebuild arm strength immediately following the surgery had a long-lasting positive impact on affect. Side of intervention was also related to psychological adjustment. Significant differences across racial groups were found for both adjustment and health locus of control.


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Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara A. Bremer
    • 1
  • Cathleen T. Moore
    • 2
  • Barbara M. Bourbon
    • 2
  • Dawn R. Hess
    • 1
  • Kristin L. Bremer
    • 3
  1. 1.Pennsyvania State UniversityHarrisburg
  2. 2.Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and SciencesPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Millersville UniversityMillersvilleUSA
  4. 4.Psychology ProgramPenn State HarrisburgMiddletown

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