Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 51–60

Perceptions of control, physical exercise, and psychological adjustment to breast cancer in South African women

  • Barbara A. Bremer
  • Cathleen T. Moore
  • Barbara M. Bourbon
  • Dawn R. Hess
  • Kristin L. Bremer
Empirical Research

Abstract

Psychological adjustment and locus of control were measured in 257 South African women both with and without breast cancer. Adjustment was defined as positive affect, negative affect, the balance between the two, satisfaction with various domains of life, and an overall sense of well-being. Health locus of control was measured separately for internal, external, and chance loci. The instrument’s reliability was comparable to that reported for U.S. norms. The women with breast cancer reported significantly lower affect and had lower internal and higher external and chance perceptions of control. The more invasive the surgical treatment, the greater the negative impact on adjustment. Data suggested that using written instructions to stress the importance of exercise to rebuild arm strength immediately following the surgery had a long-lasting positive impact on affect. Side of intervention was also related to psychological adjustment. Significant differences across racial groups were found for both adjustment and health locus of control.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Fallowfield L:The Quality of Life. London: Souvenir Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Cella DF: Quality-of-life: The concept.Journal of Palliative Care. 1992,8(3):8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. (3).
    Nayfield SG, Ganz PA, Moinpour CM, Cella DF, Halley BJ: Report from a National Cancer Insitute (USA) workshop on quality-of-life assessment in cancer clinical trials.Quality of Life Research. 1992,1:203–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    Cella DF, Cherin EA: Quality-of-life during and after cancer treatment.Comprehensive Therapy. 1988,14(5):69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. (5).
    Cella DF, Wiklund I, Shumaker SA, Aaronson NK: Integrating health-related quality-of-life into cross-national clinical trials.Quality of Life Research. 1993,2:422–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. (6).
    Cella DF: Quality-of-life: Concepts and definition.Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 1994,9(3):186–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    Andrews FM: Comparative studies of life quality: Comments on the current state of the art and some issues for further research. In Szalai A, Andrews FM (eds),The Quality of Life. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980.Google Scholar
  8. (8).
    McCauley C, Bremer BA: Subjective quality-of-life instruments for evaluating medical interventions.Evaluation and Health Professions, 1991,14(4):371–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    McDowell I, Newell C:Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Szalai A: The meaning of comparative research on the quality-of-life. In: Szalai A, Andrews FM (eds),The Quality of Life, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    Nelson JP: Perceived health, self-esteem, health habits, and perceived benefits and barriers to exercise in women who have and who have not experienced Stage 1 breast cancer.Oncology Nursing Forum. 1991,18(7):1191–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Schag CA, Ganz PA, Polinsky ML, et al: Characteristics of women at risk for psychosocial distress in the year after breast cancer.Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1992,11(4):783–793.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Young-McCaughan S, Sexton DL: A retrospective investigation of the relationship between aerobic exercise and quality-of-life in women with breast cancer.Oncology Nursing Forum. 1991,18(4):751–757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    Ganz PA, Schag CC, Cheng HL: Assessing the quality-of-life—A study in newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients.Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1989,43:75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Kaplan HS: A neglected issue: The sexual side effects of current treatments for breast cancer.Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. 1992,18(1):3–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. (16).
    Massie MJ, Holland JC: Psychological reactions to breast cancer in the pre- and post-surgical treatment period.Seminars in Surgical Oncology. 1991,7(5):320–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Mock V: Body image in women treated for breast cancer.Nursing Research. 1993,42(3):153–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Schover LR: The impact of breast cancer on sexuality, body image, and intimate relationships.CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicans. 1991,41(2):112–120.Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Gordon WA, Freidenbergs I: Efficacy of psychosocial intervention with cancer patients.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1980,48:743–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. (20).
    Spiegel D, Bloom JR, Yalom I: Group support for patients with metastatic cancer.Archives of General Psychology. 1981,38:527–533.Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Spiegel D, Bloom JR, Yalom I: Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer.The Lancet. 1989,2(8668):888–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (22).
    Cobb S: Social support as a moderator of life stress.Psychosomatic Medicine. 1976,38:300–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. (23).
    Huntington MO: Weight gain in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast.Cancer. 1985,56:472–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Knobf MT: Weight gain and adjuvant chemotherapy.Oncology Nursing Forum. 1985,12:13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    Knobf MT: Physical and psychologic distress associated with adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1986,4(5):678–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. (26).
    Knobf MT: Symptoms and rehabilitation needs of patients with early-stage breast cancer during primary therapy. American Cancer Society National Conference on Breast Cancer. Chicago, IL: 1989.Google Scholar
  27. (27).
    Knobf MT: Symptoms and rehabilitation needs of patients with early-stage breast cancer during primary therapy.Cancer. 1990,66(6 Suppl.):1392–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. (28).
    Knobf M, Muller J, Kistris D: Weight gain on women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.Oncology Nursing Forum. 1983,10:28–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Hotze T, Duncan MA, Gerber LH: Early vs. delayed shoulder motion following axillary dissection.Annals of Surgery. 1981,193:288–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. (30).
    Love S:Dr. Susan Love’s Breast Book. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    MacVicar MG, Winngham ML, Nickel JL: Effects of aerobic interval training on patients’ functional capacity.Nursing Research. 1989,38(6):348–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. (32).
    Wingate L: Efficacy of physical therapy for patients who have undergone mastectomies.Physical Therapy, 1985,65(6):896–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    Winningham ML, MacVicar MG, Bondoc M, Anderson J, Minton JP: Effect of aerobic exercise on body weight and composition in patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy.Oncology Nursing Forum. 1989,16(5):683–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. (34).
    Abramson LY, Garber J, Seligman MEP: Learned helplessness in humans: An attributional analysis. In Garber J, Seligman MEP (eds),Human Helplessness: Theory. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  35. (35).
    Hiroto DS, Seligman MEP: Generality of learned helplessness in man.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1975,31:311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (36).
    Maier SF, Seligman MEP: Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 1976,105:3–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. (37).
    Seligman MEP:Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 1975.Google Scholar
  38. (38).
    Peterson C, Seligman MEP, Vaillant GE: Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A thirty-five year longitudinal study.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1988,55:23–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    Bremer BA: Absence of control over health and the psychological adjustment to end stage renal disease.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1995,17(3):227–233.Google Scholar
  40. (40).
    Bremer BA, Haffly D, Foxx RM, Weaver A: Patients’ perceived control over their health care: An outcome assessment of their psychological adjustment to renal failure.American Journal of Medical Quality. 1995,10:149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. (41).
    Affleck G, Tennen H, Croog S, Levine S: Causal attribution, perceived control, and recovery from a heart attack.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 1987,5:339–355.Google Scholar
  42. (42).
    Affleck G, Tennen H, Pfeiffer C, Fifield C: Appraisals of control and predictability in adapting to a chronic disease.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987,53:273–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. (43).
    Taylor SE, Lichtman RR, Wood JV: Attributions, beliefs about control, and adjustment to breast cancer.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1984,46:489–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. (44).
    Deaux K, Emswiller T: Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1974,29:80–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. (45).
    Feather NT, Simon JG: Reactions to male and female success and failure in sex-linked occupations: Impressions of personality, causal attributions, and perceived likelihood of different consequences.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1975,31(1):20–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. (46).
    Taynor J, Deaux K: Equity and perceived sex differences: Role of behavior as defined by the task, the mode, and the action.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1975,32:381–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. (47).
    Kaplan RM, Anderson JP, Wingard DL: Gender differences in health-related quality-of-life.Health Psychology. 1991,10(2):86–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. (48).
    Bullinger M, Anderson R, Cella D, Aaronson N: Developing and evaluating cross-cultural instruments from minimum requirements to optimal models.Quality of Life Research. 1993,2:451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. (49).
    Bremer BA, McCauley CR: Quality-of-life measures: Hospital interview versus home questionnaire.Health Psychology. 1986,5(2):171–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. (50).
    Moore DH, Moore CT, Moore II DH: Factors implicated in breast cancer. In Hollmann KH, Verley JM (eds),New Frontiers in Mammary Pathology. New York: Plenum, 1983, 29–84.Google Scholar
  51. (51).
    Moore DH, Moore II DH, Moore CT: Breast carcinoma etiological factors.Advances in Cancer Research. 1983,40:189–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. (52).
    Bremer BA, McCauley CR, Wrona RM, Johnson JP: Quality-of-life in end-stage renal disease: A reexamination.American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 1989,13(3):200–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. (53).
    CAAS: Coronary artery surgery study: A randomized trial of coronary artery bypass surgery quality-of-life in patients randomly assigned to treatment groups.Pathophysiology and Natural History 1993,68(51):951–960.Google Scholar
  54. (54).
    Evans RW, Manninen DL, Garrison LP, et al: The quality-of-life of patients with end-stage renal disease.New England Journal of Medicine. 1985,312:553–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. (55).
    Johnson JP, McCauley CR, Copley JP: The quality-of-life of hemodialysis and transplant patients.Kidney International. 1982,22:286–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. (56).
    Bradburn NM:The Structure of Psychological Well Being: Chicago: Aldine, 1969.Google Scholar
  57. (57).
    Campbell A, Converse P, Rodgers W:The Quality of American Life. New York: Russell Sage, 1976.Google Scholar
  58. (58).
    Wallston KA, Wallston BS, DeVellis R: Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales.Health Education Monographs. 1978,6(2):160–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. (59).
    Cherlin A, Reeder LG: The dimensions of psychological well-being.Sociological Methods and Research. 1975,4:189–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara A. Bremer
    • 1
  • Cathleen T. Moore
    • 2
  • Barbara M. Bourbon
    • 2
  • Dawn R. Hess
    • 1
  • Kristin L. Bremer
    • 3
  1. 1.Pennsyvania State UniversityHarrisburg
  2. 2.Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and SciencesPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Millersville UniversityMillersvilleUSA
  4. 4.Psychology ProgramPenn State HarrisburgMiddletown

Personalised recommendations