Chinese Science Bulletin

, Volume 42, Issue 12, pp 976–981 | Cite as

On the origin of printing in the light of new archaeological discoveries

  • Jixing Pan
Article

Abstract

30 years have pas. since a printeddhārani sūtra scroll was discovered in 1966 in Kyongju. Korea. However. there have been different views about the date and place of its printing and publication in Korea and abroad. Some Korean scholars think that it was translated into Chinese from Sanskrit in 704 in China and printed during 706–751 in the Silla period in Korea. After a further research it is now proved that this sutra was translated into Chinese in 701 and printed in the following year, 702, in Luoyang, during the reign of Empress Wu. This shows that the sutra could not have been printed in the Silla period. The discoveries of theSnddharma pundarik sūtra printed during 690–699 and the Sanskritdharani charm printed around 650–670 in China also show that thedhārani sutra found in Korea is not the earliest one. Both literary records and archaeological findings prove that printing originated in China.

Keywords

origin printing China dhārani sūtra 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jeon Sang-Wwn,Brief History of Science and Technology in Korea (in Korean), Seoul: World Science & Co., 1966. 161–163.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ledyard, G. K., The discovery in the monastery Buddhu land,Columbia Library Columns, New York, 1967, 16(3): 3.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goodrich, L. C., Printing: preliminary report of a new discovery.Technology and Culture, Washington. D. C., 1967, 8: 376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hwang Sun-Pil, The discovery of the earliest block-printed edition in the world,The Dong-a Daily (in Korean), Seoul, Oct. 15, 1966, 1.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim Mong-Sul, The discvery of the earliest printed matter in the world,The Chysan Daily (in Korean), Seoul, Oct. 16. 1966, 7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim Yang-Kee, On the earliest block-printed edition of thedhāirani sūtra in the world.The Dong-a Doily (in Korean), Oct. 20, 1966, 5.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yee How-Sik, Thedhārani sūtra Livered from the Sakya pagoda in Pulguk-sa monastery in Kyongju,Paeksan Hakbo. (in Korean). 1968, (4):168.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim Sung-Su, A study on the date of the origin of printing in Korea,Studies of Bibliography (in Korean), Seoul, 1994, (10):425.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pan Jixing, The birthplace of printing: China or Korea?China Cultural Relics Weekly (in Chinese), November 17, 1996, 3.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pan Jixing, On the date and place of printing and publication of thedharani sutra discovered in South Korea in 1966.Chinese Culture: Tradition and Modernization (in Chinese). 1996, (6):1.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Han Baoquan, The earliest printed matter in the world—a printedDharani charm unearthed from a Tang tomb in Xi’anCollected Papers of the Archaeolgical Studia in China (in Chinese), Xi’an: Sanqin Press. 1987, 404–410.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nakasawa Kikuya, AHistory of Japanese and Chinese Printing (in Japanese), Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan Bookstore, 1952, 5–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kirniya Tasuhiko,A Cultural History of Old Japanese Printing (in Japanese), Tokyo: Fuzambo Press. 1932, 17–29.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tokushi Yusho,Studies in the History of Ortental Printing (in Japanese), Tokyo: Seishyoto Press, 1981, 165–182.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang Xiuming, A printed sutra discovered in Korea is the Tang printed edition.Collected Papers of Zhang Xiuming on the History of Printing (in Chinese), Beijing: Printing Industry Press, 1991, 51–54.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tsien Tsuen-Hsuin, The earliest extant Printed matter.Collected Papers on Chinese Books. Paper and Ink, and the History of Printing in Chinu (in Chinese), Hong Kong: Hong Kong Chinese University Press, 1992. 127–136.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nakasawa Kikuya.An Illustrated History of Japanese and Chinese Printing, Tokyo: Kyuku Shoin Press. 1976, Vol. 1, 1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ahn Choon-Keun, Some problems about printing and publication in the Silla period,The Goso Whungu (Studies in Ancient Books) (in Korean), Seoul, 1990, (7): 42–51.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science in China Press 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jixing Pan
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Histoty of Natoral ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations