Advertisement

The Botanical Review

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 431–469 | Cite as

American coal-ball floras

  • Henry N. Andrews
Article

Conclusion

Interest in American coal-ball floras has increased perceptibly in the past few years, and some attempts have been made in this brief review to point out current lines of research and what may be expected during the next decade or two. Two other topics might have been considered, namely, a detailed comparison with the European fossils, and a stratigraphic compilation of the American floras. Such considerations would, I believe, be premature at present. We have many genera and a considerable number of species in common with those found in the European coal balls; it is also evident that there were certain elements in the American scene that did not occur on the other side of the Atlantic. Such a comparative picture is, however, only beginning to crystallize. The tendency to date has been to describe those fossils that are new, especially conspicuous and well preserved, and we are still a long way from the end of this “cream-skimming” stage. With continuation of such studies, which are now in progress in four or five laboratories, and the integration of botanical and geological interests, we should ultimately be able to work out a very interesting picture of the sequence of Upper Carboniferous floras and contribute notably to an understanding of the evolution of certain pteridophytic groups and the early seed plants.

Keywords

Pyrite Coal Seam Botanical Review Fossil Plant Coal Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abernathy, G. E. Strip-mined areas in the southeastern Kansas coal field. Kan. State Geol. Surv., Bull. 64(4): 125–144. 1946.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andrews, H. N. Contributions to our knowledge of American Carboniferous floras. I.Scleropteris, gen. nov.,Mesoxylon andAmyelon. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.29: 1–18. 1942.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    — Contributions, etc. V.Heterangium. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.29: 275–281. 1942.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    — Contributions, etc. VII. Some pteridosperm stems from Iowa. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.32: 323–360. 1945.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    — Coal balls—a key to the past. Sci. Mon.62: 327–334. 1946.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nucellangium, a new genus of fossil seeds previously assigned toLepidocarpon. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.36: 479–504. 1949.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    — andBaxter, Robert W. Contributions, etc. X. An osmundaceous stem from Iowa. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.36: 193–197. 1948.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    — andKernen, Jules A. Contributions, etc. VIII. Another Medullosa from Iowa. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.33: 141–146. 1946.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    — andLenz, L. Wayne. A mycorrhizome from the Carboniferous of Illinois. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club70: 120–125. 1943.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andrews, H. N. andMamay, Sergius H. A contribution to our knowledge of the anatomy ofBotryopteris. [In press.]Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    — andPannell, Eloise. Contributions, etc. II.Lepidocarpon. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.29: 19–34. 1942.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arnold, C. A. A heterosporous species ofBowmanites from the Michigan coal basin. Am. Jour. Bot.31: 466–469. 1944.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    — andSteidtmann, W. E. Pteridospermous plants from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois and Missouri. Am. Jour. Bot.24: 644–650, 1937.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bain, H. F. Geology of Polk County. Iowa Geol. Surv., Ann. Rep. 7. 1897.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barghoorn, E. S. Degradation of plant remains in organic sediments. Harv. Univ. Bot. Mus. Leaf.14: 1–20. 1949.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baxter, R. W. A study of the vegetative anatomy of the genusSphenophyllum from American coal balls. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.35: 209–231. 1948.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    — Some pteridosperm stems and fructifications with particular reference to the Medullosae. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.36: 281–352. 1949.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Peltastrobus reedae: A new sphenopsid cone from the Pennsylvanian of Indiana. Bot. Gaz.112: 174–182. 1950.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Benninghoff, W. S. Preliminary report on a coal-ball flora from Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci.52: 62–68. 1943.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Cady, G. H. The occurrence of coal balls in No. 6 coal bed at Nashville, Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.29: 157–158. 1936.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Corsin, Paul. Reconstitutions de Pecopteridees: genresCaulopteris Lindley and Hutton,Megaphyton Artis andHagiophyton Nov. Gen. Ann. Soc. Geol. Nord.67: 6–25. 1948.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Coulter, J. M. andLand, W. J. G. An American Lepidostrobus. Bot. Gaz.51: 449–453. 1911.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    — and — A homosporous American Lepidostrobus. Bot. Gaz.72: 106–108. 1921.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Darrah, W. C. The peel method in paleobotany. Harv. Univ. Bot. Mus. Leaf.4: 69–83. 1936.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    — The fossil flora of Iowa coal balls. I. Discovery and occurrence. Harv. Univ. Bot. Mus. Leaf.7: 125–136. 1939.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    — The fossil flora of Iowa coal balls. II. The fructifications ofBotryopteris. Harv. Univ. Bot. Mus. Leaf.7: 157–168. 1939.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    — The fossil flora of Iowa coal balls. III.Cordaianthus. Harv. Univ. Bot. Mus. Leaf.8: 1–20. 1940.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    — The fossil flora of Iowa coal balls. IV.Lepidocarpon. Harv. Univ. Bot. Mus. Leaf.9: 85–100. 1941.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    — The Coenopterid ferns in American coal balls. Am. Mid. Nat.25: 233–269. 1941.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    — Fossil embryo in Iowa coal balls. Chron. Bot.6: 17–18. 1941.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    — Studies of American coal balls. Am. Jour. Sci.239: 33–53. 1941.Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    — Paleozoic lepidodendroid embryos. Paleobotanical Notices. II. 1–28. 1949.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Feliciano, J. M. The relation of concretions to coal seams. Jour. Geol.32: 230–239. 1924.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Fischer, M. C. andNoé, A. C. A list of coal ball plants from Calhoun, Richland County. Trans. Ill. Acad. Sci.31: 178–181. 1938.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Gillette, N. J. Morphology of some American species ofPsaronius. Bot. Gaz.99: 80–102. 1937.Google Scholar
  36. 32.
    Graham, R. Pennsylvanian flora of Illinois as revealed in coal balls. I. Bot. Gaz.95: 453–476. 1934.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    — Pennsylvanian flora of Illinois as revealed in coal balls. II. Bot. Gaz.97: 156–168. 1935.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    — An anatomical study of the leaves of the Carboniferous aborescent lycopods. Ann. Bot.49: 587–608. 1935.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Gresley, W. S. Possible new coal plants in coal. Am. Geol.24: 199–204. 1899.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    — Possible new coal plants in coal. Part II. Am. Geol.26: 49–55. 1900.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    — Possible new coal plants in coal. Part III. Am. Geol.27: 6–14. 1901.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Halle, T. G. The structure of certain fossil spore-bearing organs believed to belong to pteridosperms. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl.12: 1–103. 1933.Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Hoskins, J. H. A Paleozoic angiosperm from an American coal ball. Bot. Gaz.75: 390–399. 1923.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    — Structure of Pennsylvanian plants from Illinois. I. Bot. Gaz.82: 427–437. 1926.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    — Structure of some Carboniferous plants from Illinois. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci.37: 373–376. 1927.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    — Notes on the structure of Pennsylvanian plants from Illinois. II. Bot. Gaz.85: 74–82. 1928.Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    — Contributions to the coal measure flora of Illinois. Am. Mid. Nat.12: 154–156. 1930.Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    —. Structure and classification of certain cycadofilicinean roots from the McLeansboro formation of Illinois. Am. Mid. Nat.12: 533–548. 1931.Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    —. APtychocarpus type of fructification from Illinois. Am. Mid. Nat.14: 726–728. 1933.Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    —.Psaronius illinoensis. Am. Mid. Nat.15: 358–361. 1934.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    — andCross, A. T. A consideration of the structure ofLepidocarpon Scott based on a new strobilus from Iowa. Am. Mid. Nat.25: 523–547. 1941.Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    — and—. New interpretations ofSphenophyllostachys based on a petrified specimen from an Iowa coal ball. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.35: 68–69. 1942.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    — and—. Monograph of the Paleozoic cone genusBowmanites (Sphenophyllales). Am. Mid. Nat.30: 113–163. 1943.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    — and—. Studies in the Trigonocarpales. Part I.Pachytesta vera, a new species from the Des Moines Series of Iowa. Am. Mid. Nat.36: 207–250. 1946.Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    — and—. Studies in the Trigonocarpales. Part II. Taxonomic problems and a revision of the genusPachytesta. Am. Mid. Nat.36: 331–361. 1946.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Jongmans, W. Fossilium Catalogus. Pars16: 481. 1930.Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Kern, E. M. andAndrews, H. N. Contributions, etc. IX. Some petrified seeds from Iowa. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.33: 291–306. 1946.Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Keyes, C. R. Coal deposits of Iowa. Iowa Geol. Surv., Ann. Rep. 2. 1894.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Koopmans, R. G. Researches on the flora of the coal balls from the “Finefrau-Nebenbank” horizon in the province of Limburg (The Netherlands). Geol. Bur. voor het Nederl. Mijngebied, pp. 1–53. 1928.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Krick, H. V. Structure of seedlike fructifications found in coal balls from Harrisburg, Illinois. Bot. Gaz.93: 151–172. 1932.Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Leclercq, S. Les coal balls de la Couche Bouxharmont des Charbonnages de Werister. Mem. Soc. Geol. Belg., pp. 1–79. 1925.Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Lenz, L. W. Contributions, etc. III.Stipitopteris. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.29: 59–64. 1942.Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Levittan, E. D. andBarghoorn, E. S. Sphenostrobus Thompsonii: a new genus of the Sphenophyllales? Am. Jour. Bot.35: 350–357. 1948.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Long, A. G. On the prothallus ofLagenostoma ovoides Will. Ann. Bot.8: 105–117. 1944.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Macbride, T. H. On certain fossil plant remains in the Iowa herbarium. Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci.10: 153–162. 1907.Google Scholar
  66. 64a.
    Mamay, S. H. Some American Carboniferous fern fructifications. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.37: 409–476. 1950.Google Scholar
  67. 64b.
    — andAndrews, H. N.. A contribution to our knowledge of the anatomy ofBotryopteris. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club77: 462–494. 1950.Google Scholar
  68. 65.
    Mathews, G. B. New Lepidostrobi from central United States. Bot. Gaz.102: 26–49. 1940.Google Scholar
  69. 66.
    Moon, G. Notes on the histology of an Illinois Psaronius. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.32: 95–96. 1939.Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    Noé, A. C. Coal balls. Science57: 385. 1923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 68.
    — A Paleozoic angiosperm. Jour. Geol.31: 344–347. 1923.Google Scholar
  72. 69.
    — Coal balls here and abroad. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.17: 179–180. 1925.Google Scholar
  73. 70.
    — Review of American coal ball studies. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.24: 317–320. 1931.Google Scholar
  74. 71.
    — Evidences of climate in the morphology of Pennsylvanian plants. Ill. State Geol. Surv., Bull.60: 283–289. 1931.Google Scholar
  75. 72.
    — Coal ball floras of Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.23: 429. 1931.Google Scholar
  76. 73.
    — New American plants from the Pennsylvanian period as preserved in coal balls. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.27: 112. 1934.Google Scholar
  77. 74.
    — Some Paleozoic gymnosperm seeds and their evolution. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.28: 100. 1935.Google Scholar
  78. 75.
    Pannell, E. Contributions, etc. IV. A new species ofLepidodendron. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard.29: 245–274. 1942.Google Scholar
  79. 76.
    Read, C. B. A new fern from the Johns Valley shale of Oklahoma. Am. Jour. Bot.25: 335–338. 1938.Google Scholar
  80. 77.
    Reed, F. D. Flora of an Illinois coal ball. Bot. Gaz.81: 460–469. 1926.Google Scholar
  81. 78.
    Lepidocarpon sporangia from thE Upper Carboniferous of Illinois. Bot. Gaz.98: 307–315. 1937.Google Scholar
  82. 79.
    — Notes on some plant remains from the Carboniferous of Illinois. Bot. Gaz.100: 324–355. 1938.Google Scholar
  83. 80.
    — Structure of some Carboniferous seeds from American coal fields. Bot. Gaz.100: 769–787. 1939.Google Scholar
  84. 81.
    — Coal flora studies: Lepidodendrales. Bot. Gaz.102: 663–683. 1941.Google Scholar
  85. 82.
    — OnCardiocarpon and some associated plant fragments from Iowa coal fields. Bot. Gaz.108: 51–64. 1946.Google Scholar
  86. 83.
    — Notes on the anatomy of two Carboniferous plantsSphenophyllum andPsaronius. Bot. Gaz.110: 501–510. 1949.Google Scholar
  87. 84.
    Sahni, B. 1932. On the structure ofZygopteris primaria (Cotta) and on the relations between the generaZygopteris, Etapteris, andBotrychioxylon. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. LondonB222: 29–45. 1932.Google Scholar
  88. 85.
    Schopf, J. M. Preservation of plant material in coal balls from Nashville, Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.29: 159–160. 1936.Google Scholar
  89. 86.
    — Two new lycopod seeds from the Illinois Pennsylvanian. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.31: 187–189. 1938.Google Scholar
  90. 87.
    — A significant collection of American coal balls. Chron. Bot.4: 384–385. 1938.Google Scholar
  91. 88.
    — Coal balls as an index to the constitution of coal. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.31: 187–189. 1939.Google Scholar
  92. 89.
    Medullosa distelica, a new species of the anglica group ofMedullosa. Am. Jour. Bot.26: 196–207. 1939.Google Scholar
  93. 90.
    — A new cycadophyte and its relatives. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.31: 107–109. 1939.Google Scholar
  94. 91.
    — Notes on the Lepidocarpaceae. Am. Mid. Nat.25: 548–563. 1941.Google Scholar
  95. 92.
    — Contributions to Pennsylvanian paleobotany.Mazocarpon oedipternum, sp. nov. and Sigillarian relationships. Ill. State Geol. Surv., Rep. Inv. 75: 3–53. 1941.Google Scholar
  96. 93.
    — Pteridosperm male fructifications: American species ofDolerotheca, with notes regarding certain allied forms. Jour. Paleont.22: 681–724. 1949.Google Scholar
  97. 94.
    — Age of American coal ball plants. Bot. Gaz.111: 356–357. 1950.Google Scholar
  98. 95.
    Steidtmann, W. E. A preliminary report on the anatomy and affinities ofMedullosa noei sp. nov. from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois. Am. Jour. Bot.24: 124–125. 1937.Google Scholar
  99. 96.
    — The anatomy and affinities ofMedullosa noei Steidtmann, and associated foliage, roots, and seeds. Univ. Mich. Contr. Mus. Paleont.6: 131–166. 1944.Google Scholar
  100. 97.
    Seward, A. C. A supposed Paleozoic angiosperm. Bot. Gaz.76: 215. 1923.Google Scholar
  101. 99.
    Stopes, M. C. andWatson, D. M. S. On the present distribution and origin of the calcareous concretions in coal seams, known as coal balls. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. LondonB200: 167–218. 1908.Google Scholar
  102. 99.
    Tilton, J. L. The first reported AmericanLepidostrobus is from Warren County, Lowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.19: 163–165. 1912.Google Scholar
  103. 99.
  104. 100.
    Weller, J. M. andWanless, H. R. Correlations of minable coals of Illinois, Indiana and western Kentucky. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.23: 1374–1392. 1939.Google Scholar
  105. 101.
    Williamson, W. C. On the organization of the fossil plants of the coal-measures. Parts 1–19. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 1878–1893.Google Scholar
  106. 102.
    Williamson, W. C. andScott, D. H. Further observations on the organization of the fossil plants of the coal-measures. Parts 1–3. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. 1895–1896.Google Scholar
  107. 103.
    Wilson, L. R. Elater-bearing spores from the Pennsylvanian strata of Iowa. Am. Mid. Nat.30: 518–523. 1943.Google Scholar
  108. 104.
    — andJohnson, A. W. A new species ofCordaites from the Pennsylvanian strata of Iowa. Am. Jour. Bot.67: 117–120. 1940.Google Scholar
  109. 105.
    — andTillapaugh, I. A study of arborescent lycopod leaves associated withLepidodendron selaginoides Sternberg stems in Iowa coal balls. Am. Jour. Sci.240: 394–402. 1942.Google Scholar
  110. 106.
    Zalessky, M. D. On the discovery of the calcareous concretions known as coal balls in one of the coal seams of the Carboniferous strata of the Donetz basin. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, pp. 477–480. 1910.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1951

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry N. Andrews
    • 1
  1. 1.The Henry Shaw School of BotanyWashington UniversitySt. Louis

Personalised recommendations