Potato systematics and germplasm collecting, 1989–2000



This paper reviews the systematics of wild potatoes over the past 11 years, in reference to the latest comprehensive taxonomic treatment by Hawkes (1990. The potato: evolution, biodiversity and genetic resources. Belhaven Press, Washington, D.C.). Included here is information on monographs and floras, new germplasm collections made since 1988 compared to total potato distributional data, new taxonomic changes (including synonymy and new species descriptions), ingroup and outgroup relationships, intraspecific studies, diversity studies, and fingerprinting. In addition, data supporting taxonomic changes and phylogeny from ploidy levels, Endosperm Balance Numbers, and morphological studies of taxonomically important characters are reviewed. A revised list of 206 species is presented (from 232 in Hawkes) that incorporates recent synonymy of names, recognition of new names, and new species descriptions. New germplasm collections of 58 potato taxa were collected that did not occur in genebanks before 1988.

Key Words

Diversity Endosperm Blance Number (EBN) genetic resources molecular markers phylogeny Solanum sect.Petota. 


En este articulo se resume el tratamiento sistematico de las papas silvestres durante los pasados 11 anos, en referencia al mas reciente tratado taxonomico deHawkes (1990. The potato: evolution, biodiversity and genetic resources. Belhaven Press, Washington, D.C.) Aquí se incluye información sobre monografías, nuevas colecciones de germoplasma hechas desde 1988 y comparadas con la distribución geográfica completa de papas silvestres, nuevos cambios taxónomicos (incluidas la descripción de sinónimas y de nuevas especies), parentesco filogenético dentro y fuera del grupo, estudios intraespecíficos, estudios diversos y tipificacion del ADN. Adicionalmente, se revisan los datos que sustentan los cambios taxonómicos y en el parentesco filogenético: niveles de ploidia, Balance Numérico de Endosperma y estudios morfológicos de caracteres taxonómicamente importantes. Se presenta una lista revisada de 206 especies (de 232 de Hawkes) que incorpora la reciente sinonimia de nombres, el reconocimiento de nuevos nombres y la descripción de nuevas especies. Se colectaron 58 taxa de papa que no se encontraban en los bancos genéticos antes de 1988.

Literature Cited

  1. Angeli, M., M. Klewsaat, M. Vandrey, and K Schüler. 2000a. Wild and cultivated potato species from Central and South America. The Groß Lüsewitz Potato Collection (GLKS). Inventory for 2000. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research Gatersleben (IPK), Genebank External Branch North.Google Scholar
  2. Angeli, M., M. Klewsaat, M. Vandrey, and K. Schüler. 2000b. Collection of potato varieties. The Groß Lüsewitz Potato Collection (GLKS). Inventory for 2000. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research Gatersleben (IPK), Genebank External Branch North.Google Scholar
  3. Bamberg, J.B. 1994. Allelism of endosperm balance number (EBN) inSolanum acaule Bitt. and other wild potato species. Theor Appl Genet 89:682–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bamberg, J.B., and M.W. Martin. 1993. Inventory of tuber-bearingSolanum species: catalog of potato germplasm—1993. Potato Introduction Station, NRSP-6, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  5. Bamberg, J.B., M.W. Martin, J.J. Schartner, and D.M. Spooner. 1996. Inventory of tuber-bearingSolanum species - catalog of potato germplasm -1996. Potato Introduction Station, NRSP-6, Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  6. Bamberg, J.B., and D.M. Spooner. 1994. The United States Potato Introduction Station Herbarium. Taxon 43:489–496.Google Scholar
  7. Bohs, L, and R.G. Olmstead. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships inSolanum (Solanaceae) based on ndhF sequences. Syst Bot 22:5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohs, L., and R.G. Olmstead. 1999.Solanum phylogeny inferred from chloroplast DNA sequence phylogeny.In: Nee, M., D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester, and J.P. Jessop (eds), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK pp. 97–110.Google Scholar
  9. Bonierbale, M., W. Ganal, and S.D. Tanksley. 1990. Applications of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and genetic mapping in potato breeding and molecular genetics.In: Vayda, M.E. and W.D. Park(eds), The Molecular and Cellular Biology of the Potato. CAB International, Wallingford, UK pp. 13–24.Google Scholar
  10. Bonierbale, M., R.W. Plaisted, and S.D. Tanksley. 1988. RFLP maps based on a common set of clones reveal modes of chromosomal evolution in tomato and potato. Genetics 120:1095–1103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Borisjuk, N., L. Borisjuk, G. Petjuch, and V. Hemleben. 1994. Comparison of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes amongSolanum species and other Solanaceae. Genome 37:271–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, C.R. 1993. Origin and history of the potato. Am Potato J 70:363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brücher, H.E. 1989. Refutation of recent creations of microspecies and hybrid taxa in ArgentinianSolanum (sect.Petota). Phytologia 67:220–226.Google Scholar
  14. Brücher, H.E. 1990. New contributions to an ancient problem on the origin of the tetraploid potato(Solanum tuberosum L.). Naturwissenschaften 77:497–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brummitt, R.K., and C.E. Powell. 1992. Authors of plant names: a list of authors of scientific names of plants, with recommended standard forms of their names, including abbreviations. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UKGoogle Scholar
  16. Brush, S., R. Kesseli, R. Ortega, P. Cisneros, K Zimmerer, and C. Quiros. 1995. Potato diversity in the Andean center of crop domestication. Conserv Biol 9:1189–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bryan, G.J., J. McNicoll, G. Ramsay, R.C. Meyer, and W.S. De Jong. 1999. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers in chloroplast genomes of Solanaceous plants. Theor Appl Genet 99:859–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bukasov, S.M. 1971. Systematics of the potato (In Russian). English translation of article first appearing in Trudy Prikl Bot 62:3–35.In: Kothetar, V.S. (ed.), Systematics, Breeding, and Seed Production of Potatoes. Amerind Publishing Co., New Delhi, India pp. 142.Google Scholar
  19. Camadro, E.L., and R.W. Masuelli. 1995. A genetic model for the Endosperm Balance Number (EBN) in the wild potatoS. acaule Bitt. and two related diploid species. Sex Plant Reprod 8:283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castillo, R.O., and D.M. Spooner. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of wild potatoes,Solanum seriesConicibaccata (sect.Petota). Syst Bot 22:45–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chetelat, R.T., V. Meglic, and P. Cisneros. 2000. A genetic map of tomato based on BC1 Lycopersicum esculentum ×Solanum lycopersicoides reveals overall synteny but suppressed recombination between homologous genomes. Genetics 154:857–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Child, A. 1990. A synopsis ofSolanum subgenusPotatoe (G. Don) (D’Arcy)(Tuberarium (Dun.) Bitter (s.l.)). Feddes Repert. 101:209–235.Google Scholar
  23. Child, A., and R.N. Lester. 1991. Life form and branching within the Solanaceae.In: Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada-R.(eds), Solanaceae HI, Taxonomy, Chemistry and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK pp. 151–159.Google Scholar
  24. Cisneros, P.L., and C.F. Quiros. 1995. Variation and phylogeny of the triploid cultivated potatoSolanum chaucha Juz. et Buk. based on RAPD and isozyme markers. Genet Res Crop Evol 42:373–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clausen, A.M. 1989. Collecting indigenous potato varieties in northwest Argentina. Pl Genet Res News 180:38–39.Google Scholar
  26. Clausen, A.M., and J.V. Crisci. 1989. Analisis multivariado de la variacion morfologica de poblaciones diploides y tetraploides deSolanum gourlayi (Solanaceae) y especies relacionadas. Darwiniana 29:247–259.Google Scholar
  27. Clausen, A.M., and K.A. Okada. 1990. Electroforesis de proteinas de los tuberculos enSolanum tuberosos silvestres (Solanaceae). Darwiniana 30:163–169.Google Scholar
  28. Clausen, A.M., and D.M. Spooner. 1998. Molecular support for the hybrid origin of the wild potato speciesSolanum xrechei. Crop Sci 38:858–865.Google Scholar
  29. Contreras-M., A., L. Ciampi, S. Padulosi, and D.M. Spooner. 1993. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to the Guaitecas and Chonos Archipelagos, Chile, 1990. Potato Res 36:309–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Contreras-M., A., and D.M. Spooner. 1999. Revision ofSolanum sectionEtuberosum (subgenusPotatoe).In: Nee, M., D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester, and J.P. Jessop (eds), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK pp. 227–245.Google Scholar
  31. Correll, D.S. 1962. The potato and its wild relatives. Contr Texas Res Found Bot Stud 4:1–606.Google Scholar
  32. Corriveau, J.L., and A.W. Coleman. 1988. Rapid screening method to detect potential biparental inheritance of plastid DNA and results for over 200 angiosperm species. Am J Bot 75:1443–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Debener, T., F. Salamini, and C. Gebhardt. 1990. Phytogeny of wild and cultivatedSolanum species based on nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Theor Appl Genet 79:360–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Debener, T., F. Salamini, and C. Gebhardt. 1991. The use of RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) detects germplasm introgressions from wild species into potato (Solanum ssp.Solanum) breeding lines. PI Breed 106:173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Del Rio, AH., J.B. Bamberg, and Z. Huamán. 1997a Assessing changes in the genetic diversity of potato gene banks. 1. Effects of seed increase. Theor Appl Genet 95:191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Del Rio, A.H., J.B. Bamberg, Z. Huamán, A. Salas, and S.E. Vega 1997b Assessing changes in the genetic diversity of potato gene banks. 2. In situ vs ex situ. Theor Appl Genet 95:199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Del Rio, A.H., J.B. Bamberg, Z. Huamán, A. Salas, and S.E. Vega. 2001. Association of eco-geographical variables and RAPD marker variation in wild potato populations in the U.S. Crop Sci. 41:870–878.Google Scholar
  38. Demeke, T., D.R. Lynch, L.M. Kawchuk, G.C. Kozub, and J.D. Armstrong. 1996. Genetic diversity of potato determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Pl Cell Rep 15:662–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Douches, D.S., and K. Ludlam. 1991. Electrophoretic characterization of North American potato cultivars. Am Potato J 68:767–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Douches, D.S., R. Freyre, and K. Hicks. 1991. Use of RFLPs to fingerprint North American potato cultivars. Report of the Planning Conference on Application of Molecular Techniques to Potato Germplasm Enhancement, International Potato Center. 1991:166–175.Google Scholar
  41. Ehlenfeldt, M.K., and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1988. Genetic control of Endosperm Balance Number (EBN): three additive loci in a threshold-like system. Theor Appl Genet 75:825–832.Google Scholar
  42. Fritz, N.K., and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1989. Interspecific incompatibility due to stylar barriers in tuber-bearing and closely related non-tuber-bearing Solanums. Sex Plant Reprod 2:184–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fulton, T.M., T. Beck-Bunn, D. Emmatty, Y. Eshed, J. Lopez, V. Petiard, J. Uhlig, D. Zamir, and S.D. Tanksley. 1997. QTL analysis of an advanced backcross ofLycopersicum peruvianum to the cultivated tomato and comparisons with QTLs found in other wild species. Theor Appl Genet 95:881–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gebhardt, C., C. Blomendahl, U. Schachtschnabel, T. Debener, F. Salamini, and E. Ritter. 1989. Identification of 2n breeding lines and 4n varieties of potato(Solanum tuberosum subsp.tuberosum) with RFLP fingerprints. Theor Appl Genet 78:16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gebhardt, C., E. Ritter, and F. Salamini. 1994. RFLP map of the potato.In: Phillips, R.L., I.K Vasil (eds), DNA-based markers in plants. Kluwer, Dordrecht. Boston, pp. 271–285.Google Scholar
  46. Ghislain, M., D. Zhang, D. Fajardo, Z. Huamán, and R.J. Hijmans. 1999. Marker-assisted sampling of cultivated Andean potatoSolanum phureja collection using RAPD markers. Gen Res Crop Evol 46:547–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Giannattasio, R.B., and D.M. Spooner. 1994a A reexamination of species boundaries and hypotheses of hybridization concerningSolanum megistacrolobum andS. toralapanum (Solanum seriesMegistacroloba): molecular data. Syst Bot 19:106–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Giannattasio, R.B., and D.M. Spooner. 1994b. A reexamination of species boundaries betweenSolanum megistacrolobum andS. toralapanum (Solanum sect.Petota, seriesMegistacroloba): morphological data. Syst Bot 19:89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Godwin, I.D., E.A.B. Aitken, and L.W. Smith. 1997. Application of inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to plant genetics. Electrophoresis 18:1524–1528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gorbatenko, L.E. 1989. Systematic conspectus of the sectionPetota Dumort of the genusSolanum L. in South America (in Russian). Trudy Prikl Bot 126:92–108.Google Scholar
  51. Gorbatenko, L.E., and J. Hawkes. 1996. The designation of a lectotype for a cultivated potato species,Solanum goniocalyx Juz. & Bukasov. Kew Bull 51:552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Görg, R., U. Schachtschabel, E. Riter, F. Salamini, and C. Gebhardt. 1992. Discrimination among 136 tetraploid potato varieties by fingerprints using polymorphic DNA markers. Crop Sci 32:815–819.Google Scholar
  53. Greene, S.L., and T. Hart. 1996. Plant genetic resources collections: an opportunity for the evolution of global data sets.In: Third international conference/workshop on integrating GIS and environmental modeling. Santa Fe, NM. (CD-ROM and web publication;www. ncgia. ucsb. edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/sf_papers/ greene_stephanie/sgreene. html)Google Scholar
  54. Greuter, W., J. McNeill, F.R. Barrie, H.M. Burdett, V. Demoulin, T.S. Filgueiras, D.H. Nicolson, P.C. Silva, J.E. Skpg, P. Trehane, N.J. Turland, D.L. Hawksworth (eds and compilers). 1999. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (St. Louis Code). Reg Veg 138:1–474.Google Scholar
  55. Grun, P. 1990. The evolution of cultivated potatoes.In: Bretting, P.K. (ed), New Perspectives on the Origin and Evolution of New World Domesticated Plants. Econ Bot 3 (Suppl.) 44:39–55.Google Scholar
  56. Guarino, L., A. Jarvis, R.J. Hijmans, and N. Maxted. In press. Geographic information systems (GIS) and the conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Technology for mapping plant genetic diversity in the 21st century. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  57. Hamilton, C.W., and S.H. Reichard. 1992. Current practice in the use of subspecies, variety, and form in the classification of wild plants. Taxon 41:485–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hamrick, J.L., and M.J.W. Godt. 1997. Allozyme diversity in cultivated crops. Crop Sci 37:26–30.Google Scholar
  59. Hanneman Jr., R.E. 1994. Assignment of Endosperm Balance Numbers to the tuber-bearing Solanums and their close non-tuber-bearing relatives. Euphytica 74:19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hanneman Jr., R.E. 1999. The reproductive biology of the potato and its implications for breeding. Potato Res 42:283–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hanneman Jr., R.E. and J.B. Bamberg. 1986. Inventory of tuber-bearingSolanum species. Wisconsin Agric Exp Sta Bull 533:1–216.Google Scholar
  62. Harding, K. 1991. Restriction enzyme mapping the ribosomal RNA genes inSolanum tuberosum: Potato rDNA restriction enzyme map. Euphytica 54:245–250.Google Scholar
  63. Harding, K. 1992. Detection of ribosomal RNA genes by chemiluminescence inSolanum L.: A rapid and non-radioactive technique for the characterization of potato germplasm. Potato Res 35:199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hawkes, J.G. 1958. Kartoffel. I.In: Kappert, H., and W. Rudorf (eds), Taxonomy, Cytology and Crossability. Hand. Pflanzenzuch., ed. 2, vol. 3, Paul Parey, Berlin, pp. 143.Google Scholar
  65. Hawkes, J.G. 1962. Introgression in certain wild potato species. Euphytica 11:752–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hawkes, J.G. 1963. A revision of the tuber-bearing Solanums II. Scott Pl Breed Stn Rec 1963:76–181.Google Scholar
  67. Hawkes, J.G. 1970. Potatoes.In: Frankle, O.H., and E. Bennett (eds), Genetic Resources in Plants—Their Exploration and Conservation. International Biological Programme Handbook No. 11, F.A. Davies Co., Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  68. Hawkes, J.G. 1989. Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on the infrageneric taxa of the tuber-bearing Solanums. Taxon 38:489–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hawkes, J.G. 1990. The Potato: Evolution, Biodiversity and Genetic Resources. Belhaven Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  70. Hawkes, J.G. 1991. The evolution of tropical American root and tuber crops with special reference to potatoes.In: Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada-R. (eds), Solanaceae III, Taxonomy, Chemistry and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK pp. 347–356.Google Scholar
  71. Hawkes, J.G. 1992a History of the potato.In: Harris, P. (ed.), The Potato Crop: The Scientific Basis for Improvement, ed. 2. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  72. Hawkes, J.G. 1992b. Biosystematics of the potato.In: Harris, P. (ed.), The Potato Crop: The Scientific Basis for Improvement, ed. 2. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 13–64.Google Scholar
  73. Hawkes, J.G. 1992c. William Lobb in Ecuador and the enigma ofSolanum lobbianum. Taxon 41:471–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hawkes, J.G. 1993. A Chilean wild potato species and the publication of its name,Solanum maglia (Solanaceae). Taxon 42:671–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hawkes, J.G. 1994a. Biodiversity and disease and pest resistance in wild and cultivated potatoes. A case study in genetic resource exploration and utilization. Collecta Clusiana. Ethnobotany and Ethnobiodiversity, Bio Tar-Series 4:54–67.Google Scholar
  76. Hawkes, J.G. 1994b. Origins of cultivated potatoes and species relationships.In: Bradshaw, J.E., and G.R. Mackay (eds), Potato-Genetics. CAB International, Wallingford, UK pp. 3–42.Google Scholar
  77. Hawkes, J.G. 1997a. Cultivated plant diversity and taxonomy.In: Claridge, M.F., H.A. Dawah, and M.R. Wilson (eds), Species: The Units of Biodiversity. Chapman and Hall, New York. pp. 191–198.Google Scholar
  78. Hawkes, J.G. 1997b. A database for wild and cultivated potatoes. Euphytica 93:155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hawkes, J.G., and J.P. Hjerting. 1969. The Potatoes of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay: a Biosystematic Study. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  80. Hawkes, J.G., and J.P. Hjerting. 1989. The Potatoes of Bolivia: Their Breeding Value and Evolutionary Relationships. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  81. Hawkes, J.G. and M.T. Jackson. 1992. Taxonomic and evolutionary implications of the Endosperm Balance Number hypothesis in potatoes. Theor Appl Genet 84:180–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hijmans, R.J., K.A. Garrett, Z. Huamán, D.P. Zhang, M. Schreuder, and M. Bonierbale. 2000. Assessing the geographic representativeness of genebank collections: The case of Bolivian wild potatoes. Conserv Biol 14:1755–1765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hijmans, R.J., M. Schreuder, J. de la Cruz, and L. Guarino. 1999. Using GIS to check co-ordinates of genebank accessions. Gen Res Crop Evol 46:291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hillis, D.M., C. Moritz, and B.K Mable. 1996. Molecular Systematics of Plants, ed. 2. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  85. Hoekstra, R., and L. Scidewitz. 1987. Evaluation data on tuber-bearingSolanum species. Inst Pflanzenbau Pflanzenzüchtung der FAL -Stichting voor Plantenveredeling (SVP).Google Scholar
  86. Hosaka, K. 1986. Who is the mother of the potato? — Restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA of cultivated potatoes. Theor Appl Genet 72:606–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hosaka, K. 1993. Similar introduction and incorporation of potato chloroplast DNA into Japan and Europe. Japan J Genet 68:55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hosaka, K 1995. Successive domestication and evolution of the Andean potatoes as revealed by chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis. Theor Appl Genet 90:356–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hosaka, K., G.A. de Zoeten, and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1988. Cultivated potato chloroplast DNA differs from the wild type by one deletion—evidence and implications. Theor Appl Genet 75:741–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hosaka, K., and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1988. The origin of the cultivated tetraploid potato based on chloroplast DNA. Theor Appl Genet 76:172–176.Google Scholar
  91. Hosaka, K., and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1991. Seed protein variation within accessions of wild and cultivated potato species and inbredSolanum chacoense. Potato Res 34:419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hosaka, K., M. Mori, and K. Ogawa. 1994. Genetic relationships of Japanese potato cultivars assessed by RAPD analysis. Amer Potato J 71:535–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hosaka, K., and K. Ogawa 1994. Genetic diversity in Japanese and North American potato cultivars evaluated by RAPD analysis. Science Rep Fac Agric Kobe Univ 21:3942.Google Scholar
  94. Hosaka, K., Y. Ogihara, M. Matsubayashi, and K. Tsunewaki. 1984. Phylogenetic relationship between the tuberousSolanum species as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA. Japan J Genet 59:349–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hosaka, K., and D.M. Spooner. 1992. RFLP analysis of the wild potato species,Solanum acaule Bitter(Solanum sect.Petota). Theor Appl Genet 84:851–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Huamán, Z. 1986. Conservation of potato genetic resources at CIP. CIP Circular 14(2): 1–7.Google Scholar
  97. Huamán, Z. 1998. Collection, maintenance and evaluation of potato genetic resources. Pl Var Seeds 11:29–38.Google Scholar
  98. Huamán, Z., A. Golmirzaie, and W. Amoros. 1997. The potato.In: Fuccillo, D., L. Sears, and P. Stapleton (eds), Biodiversity in trust: conservation and use of plant genetic resources in CGIAR Centres. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 21–28.Google Scholar
  99. Huamán Z., R. Hoekstra, and J. Bamberg. 2000a. The Inter-genebank potato database and the dimensions of “available” wild potato germplasm. Am J Potato Res 77:353–362.Google Scholar
  100. Huamán, Z., R. Ortiz, and R. Gómez. 2000b. Selecting aSolanum tuberosum subsp.andigena core collection using morphological, geographical, disease and pest descriptors. Am J Potato Res 77:183–190.Google Scholar
  101. Huamán, Z., R. Ortiz, D. Zhang, and F. Rodríguez. 2000c. Isozyme analysis of the entire and core collections ofSolanum tuberosum subsp.andigena potato cultivars. Crop Sci 40:273–276.Google Scholar
  102. Huamán, Z., and H. Stegemann. 1989. Use of electrophoretic analyses to verify morphologically identical clones in a potato collection. Pl Var Seeds 2:155–161.Google Scholar
  103. Institute for Scientific Information. 1998. ProCite version 4.0.2. Research Information Systems, Carlsbad, CA.Google Scholar
  104. Irikura, Y. 1976. Cytogenetic studies on the haploid plants of the tuber-bearingSolanum species. II. Cytogenetic investigations on haploid plants and interspecific hybrids by utilizing haploidy (in Japanese, with English summary). Res Bull Hokkaido Natl Agr Exp Stn 115:1–80.Google Scholar
  105. Jackson, M.T., J.G. Hawkes, and P.R. Rowe. 1977. The nature ofSolanum xchaucha Juz. et Buk., a triploid cultivated potato of the South American Andes. Euphytica 26:775–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Jacobs, J.M.E., H.J. van Eck, P. Arens, B. Verkerk-Bakker, B. te Lintel Hekkert, H.J.M. Bastiaanssen, A. El-Kharbotly, A. Periera, E. Jacobsen, and W.J. Stiekema. 1995. A genetic map of potato(Solanum tuberosum) integrating molecular markers, including transposons, and classical markers. Theor Appl Genet 91:289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Jansky, S.H. 2000. Breeding for disease resistance in potato. Plant Breed Rev 19:69–155.Google Scholar
  108. Johnston, S.A., T.P.M. den Nijs, S.J. Peloquin, and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1980. The significance and genic balance to endosperm development in interspecific crosses. Theor Appl Genet 57:5–9.Google Scholar
  109. Johnston, S.A, and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1980. Support of the Endosperm Balance Number Hypothesis using some tuber-bearingSolanum species. Amer Potato J 57:7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Johnston, S.A., and R.E. Hanneman Jr. 1996. Genetic control of Endosperm Balance Number (EBN) in the Solanaceae based on trisomic and mutation analysis. Genome 39:314–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Johnston, S.A., and R.E. Hanneman, Jr. 1999. The nature of the genetic control of Endosperm Balance Number based on aneuploid analysis inDatura. Sex Plant Reprod 12:71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Jones, P.G., S.E. Beebe, J. Thome, and N.W. Galwey. 1997. The use of geographic information systems in biodiversity exploration and conservation. Biodiv Conserv 6:947–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Jones, P.G., and A. Gladkov. 1999. FloraMap: A computer tool for the distribution of plants and other organisms in the wild. Centro International de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia.Google Scholar
  114. Kardolus, J.P. 1998. A biosystematic analysisof Solanum acaule. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  115. Kardolus, J.P. 1999. Morphological variation within seriesAcaulia Juz.(Solanum sect.Petota). In: Nee, M., D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester, and J.P. Jessop (eds), Solanaceae IV, Advances in biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 257–274.Google Scholar
  116. Kardolus, J.P., and N. Bezem. 1998. The floral abscission zone in seriesAcaulia and related taxaof Solanum sectionPetota. Can J Bot 76:1424–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kardolus, J.P., and N. Groendijk-Wilders. 1998. The inflorescence architecture ofSolanum acaule and related taxaof Solanum sectionPetota (Solanaceae). Acta Bot Neerl 47:195–207.Google Scholar
  118. Kardolus, J.P., H.J. van Eck, and R.G. van den Berg. 1998. The potential of AFLPs in biosystematics: a first application inSolanum taxonomy (Solanaceae). Pl Syst Evol 210:87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Karp, A., S. Kresovich, K.V. Bhat, W.G. Ayad, and T. Hodgkin. 1997. Molecular tools in plant genetic resources conservation: a guide to the technologies. IPGRI Tech Bull 2:147.Google Scholar
  120. Katsiotis, A., R.E. Hanneman Jr., and R.A. Fosberg. 1995. Endosperm Balance Number and the polar-nuclei activation hypotheses for endosperm development in interspecific crosses of Solanaceae and Gramineae, respectively. Theor Appl Genet 91:848–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kawagoe, Y., and Y. Kikuta1991. Chloroplast DNA evolution in potato(Solanum tuberosum L.). Theor Appl Genet 81:13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kehoe, H.W. 1986. Inventory of potato variety collections in EC countries. Commission of the EC, Brussels. Balkema, Rotterdam/ Boston.Google Scholar
  123. Kim, J.H., H. Joung, and Y.P. Lim. 1998. Estimation of genetic variation and relationship in potato(Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars using AFLP markers. Amer J Potato Res 75:107–112.Google Scholar
  124. Lester, R.N. 1991. Evolutionary relationships of tomato, potato, pepino, and wild species ofLycopersicon andSolanum.In: Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada-R. (eds), Solanaceae III, Taxonomy, Chemistry and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK pp. 283–301.Google Scholar
  125. Livingston, K.D., V.K. Lackney, J.R. Blauth, R. van Wijk, and M.K. Jahn. 1999. Genome mapping inCapsicum and evolution of genome structure in the Solanaceae. Genetics 152:1183–1202.Google Scholar
  126. López, L.E. and J.G. Hawkes. 1991a Intra- and inter-specific crossability and fertility of wild tuber-bearingSolanum species in the seriesConicibaccata.In: Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada-R. (eds), Solanaceae III, Taxonomy, Chemistry and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. pp. 303–326Google Scholar
  127. López, L.E. and J.G. Hawkes. 1991b. Cytology and genome constitution of the tuber-bearingSolanum, species in seriesConicibaccata.In: Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada-R. (eds), Solanaceae III, Taxonomy, Chemistry and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. pp.327–346.Google Scholar
  128. Macias-M., M., R. Mancilla-T., and A. Contreras-M. 1989. Identificacion de clones de papa chilena(Solanum ssp.Petota) por electroforesis de proteinas y esterasas. Agro Sur 17:56–63.Google Scholar
  129. Malkamaki, U., M.S. Clark, H. Rita, J.P.T. Valkonen, and E. Pehu. 1996. Analyses of solanaceous species using repetitive genomic DNA sequences isolated fromSolanum brevidens. Plant Sci Shannon 1996:121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mandolino, G., S. de Marco, V. Faeti, M. Bagatta, A. Carboni, and P. Ranalli. 1996. Stability of fingerprints ofSolanum tuberosum plants derived from conventional tubers and vitrotubers. Pl Breed 115:439–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Marks, G.E. 1955. Cytogenetic studies in tuberousSolanum species. I. Genomic differentiation in the GroupDemissa. J Genet 53:262–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Matsubayashi, M. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships in the potato and its related species.In: Tsuchiya, T. and P.K Gupta (eds), Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding, Evolution, part B. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 93–118.Google Scholar
  133. McGregor, C.E., C.A. Lambert, M.M. Greyling, J.H. Louw, and L. Warnich. 2000. A comparative assessment of DNA fingerprinting techniques (RAPD, ISSR, AFLP and SSR) in tetraploid potato(Solanum tuberosum L.) germplasm. Euphytica 113:135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Milbourne, D., R. Meyer, J.E. Bradshaw, E. Baird, N. Bonar, J. Provan, W. Powell, and R. Waugh. 1997. Comparison of PCR-based marker systems for the analysis of genetic relationships in cultivated potato. Mol Breed 3:127–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Milbourne, D., R.C. Meyer, A.J. Collins, L.D. Ramsay, C. Gebhardt, and R. Waugh. 1998. Isolation, characterization and mapping of simple sequence repeat loci in potato. Mol Gen Genet 259:233–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Miller, J.T., and D.M. Spooner. 1996. Introgression ofSolanum chacoense (Solanum sect.Petota): upland populations reexamined. Syst Bot 21:461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Miller, J.T., and D.M. Spooner. 1999. Collapse of species boundaries in the wild potatoSolanum brevicaule complex (Solanaceae,S. sect.Petota): molecular data. Pl Syst Evol 214:103–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mori, M., K.A. Hosaka, Y. Umemura, and C. Kaneda. 1993. Rapid identification of Japanese potato cultivars by RAPDs. Japan J Genet 68:167–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Moscone, E.A. 1992. Estudios de chromosomas en Solanaceae de Argentina. Darwiniana 31:261–297.Google Scholar
  140. Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis ofSolanum in the New World.In: Nee, M., D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester, and J.P. Jessop (eds), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. pp. 285–333.Google Scholar
  141. Nishiyama, I., and T. Yabuno. 1978. Causal relationships between the polar nuclei in double fertilization and interspecific cross-incompatibility. Cytologia 43:453–466.Google Scholar
  142. Ochoa, C.M. 1959. Nuevas especies deSolanum (Tuberarium, subsec.Hyperbasarthrum) del Peru. Agronomia (Lima) 26:312–322.Google Scholar
  143. Ochoa, C.M. 1962. LosSolanum tuberíferos del Perú (Secc.Tuberarium, Sub-secc.Hyperbasarthrum). Privately Published, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  144. Ochoa, C.M. 1975. Las papas cultivadas triploides deSolanum xchaucha y su distribucíon geográfica en el Perú. Anales Cient. UNA 13:31–44.Google Scholar
  145. Ochoa, C.M. 1989aSolanum amayanum: a new wild Peruvian potato species. Am Potato J 66:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Ochoa, C.M. 1989b.Solanum salasianum: new wild tuber-bearing species from Peru. Am Potato J 66:235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ochoa, C.M. 1989c.Solanum seriesSimplicissima, nueva serie tuberifera de la sect.Petota (Solanaceae). Rev Acad Colomb Ci Exact 17:321–323.Google Scholar
  148. Ochoa, C.M. 1989d. Change of name in tuber-bearingSolanum. Phytologia 67:235.Google Scholar
  149. Ochoa, C.M. 1990a [actual release date 13 June 1991]. The Potatoes of South America: Bolivia. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  150. Ochoa, C.M. 1990b.Solanum serratoris: A new wild Ecuadorian potato species. Am Potato J 67:381–383.Google Scholar
  151. Ochoa, C.M. 1992a. New synonyms in the tuber bearingSolanum. Phytologia 73:166–168.Google Scholar
  152. Ochoa, C.M. 1992b. Determinations of chromosome number (2n) and Endosperm Balance Number (EBN) in some little known tuber bearingSolanum. Phytologia 73:180–182.Google Scholar
  153. Ochoa, C.M. 1992c.Solanum lobbianum Bitter, a little known Colombian tuber bearing species. Phytologia 73:183–185.Google Scholar
  154. Ochoa, C.M. 1992d.Solanum saxatilis, a new wild potato species from Peru. Phytologia 73:378–380.Google Scholar
  155. Ochoa, C.M. 1993. Karyotaxonomic studies on wild Ecuadorian tuber-bearingSolanum, Sect.Petota. Phytologia 75:422–431.Google Scholar
  156. Ochoa, C.M. 1994a.Solanum arahuayum (sect.Petota), nova specie Peruviana. Phytologia 77:96–98.Google Scholar
  157. Ochoa, C.M. 1994b. New taxa in sectionPetota ofSolanum. Phytologia 77:390–392.Google Scholar
  158. Ochoa, C.M. 1998.Solanum ortegae, a new Peruvian species from sect.Petota. Phytologia 85:271–272.Google Scholar
  159. Ochoa, C.M. 1999. Las papas de sudamerica: Peru (Parte I). International Potato Center, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  160. Ochoa, C.M. 2000.Solanum hygrothermicum, an endangered cultivated potato species. Econ Bot 54: 228.Google Scholar
  161. Oganisyan, A.S., E.Z. Kochieva, and A.P. Ryskov. 1996. Fingerprinting potato species and cultivars using the RAPD-PCR method. Russ J Genet 32:448–451 (translated from Genetica [Moscow] 32:448–451).Google Scholar
  162. Okada, K.A., and J.G. Hawkes. 1978.Solanum xrechei, especie silvestre de papas de origin hibrido de la Sierra de Famatina (Provincia de la Rioja, Argentina). Kurtziana 11:55–74.Google Scholar
  163. Olmstead, R.G., and J.D. Palmer. 1992. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the Solanaceae: Subfamilial relationships and character evolution. Ann Missouri Bot Gard 79:346–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Olmstead, R.G., and J.D. Palmer. 1997. Implications for the phylogeny, classification, and biogeography ofSolanum from cpDNA restriction site variation. Syst Bot 22:19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Olmstead, R.G., J.A. Sweere, R.E Spangler, L. Bohs, and J.D. Palmer. 1999. Phylogeny and provisional classification of the Solanaceae based on chloroplast DNAIn: Nee, M., D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester, and J.P. Jessop (eds), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. pp. 111–137.Google Scholar
  166. Ortiz, R., and M. Ehlenfeldt. 1992. The importance of Endosperm Balance Number in potato breeding and the evolution of tuber-bearingSolanum species. Euphytica 60:105–113.Google Scholar
  167. Peralta, I.E., and D.M. Spooner. In press.Waxy gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes(Solanum L. sectionLycopersicum [Mill.] Wettst. subsectionLycopersicum). Am J Bot.Google Scholar
  168. Perez, F., A. Menendez, P. Dehal, and C.F. Quiros. 1999. Genomic structural differentiation inSolanum: comparative mapping of the A and E genomes. Theor Appl Genet 98:1183–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Petersen, H.W., P.A. Mølgaard, U. Nyman, and C.E. Olsen. 1993. Chemotaxonomy of the tuber-bearingSolanum species, subsectionPotatoe (Solanaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 21:629–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Powell, W., E. Baird, N. Duncan, and R. Waugh. 1993. Chloroplast DNA variability in old and recently introduced potato cultivars. Ann Appl Bot 123:403–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Powell, W., M.S. Phillips, J.W. McNicol, and R. Waugh. 1991. The use of DNA markers to estimate the extent and nature of genetic variability inSolanum tuberosum cultivars. Ann Appl Biol 118:423–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Prevost, A., and M.J. Wilkinson. 1999. A new system of comparing PCR primers applied to ISSR fingerprinting of potato cultivars. Theor Appl Genet 98:107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Provan, J., W. Powell, and R. Waugh. 1996a Microsatellite analysis of relationships within cultivated potato(Solanum tuberosum). Theor Appl Genet 92:1078–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Provan, J., W. Powell, and R. Waugh. 1996b. Analysis of cultivated potato(Solanum tuberosum) using intermicrosatellite amplification. Genome 39:767–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Quiros, C.F., S.B. Brush, D.S. Douches, K.S. Zimmerer, and G. Huestis. 1990. Biochemical and folk assessment of variability of Andean cultivated potatoes. Econ Bot 44:254–266.Google Scholar
  176. Quiros, C.F., A. Ceada, A. Georgescu, and J. Hu. 1993. Use of RAPD markers in potato genetics: segregations in diploid and tetraploid families. Am Potato J 70:3542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Quiros, C.F., R. Ortega, L. van Raamsdonk, M.E. Herrera, P. Cisneros, E. Schmidt, and S.B. Brush. 1992. Increase of potato genetic resources in their center of diversity: The role of natural outcrossing and selection by the Andean farmer. Genet Res Crop Evol 39:107–113.Google Scholar
  178. Rabinowitz, D., C.R. Linder, R. Ortega, D. Begazo, H. Murguia, D.S. Douches, and C.F. Quiros. 1990. High levels of interspecific hybridization betweenSolanum sparsipilum andS. stenotomum in experimental plots in the Andes. Am Potato J 67:73–81.Google Scholar
  179. Rodríguez-C, A., and O. Vargas-P. 1994. Las especies de papa silvestre(Solanum. L. seccionPetota Dumortier) en Jalisco. Bol Inst Bot 2:1–68.Google Scholar
  180. Rodríguez-C, A., O. Vargas, E. Villegas, and D.M. Spooner. 1995. Wild potato(Solanum sect.Petota) germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1993, with special reference toSolanum bulbocastanum Dunal andS. cardiophyllum Lindley. Potato Res 38:47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Rodríguez-C, A. and D.M. Spooner. 1997. Chloroplast DNA analysis ofSolanum bulbocastanum andS. cardiophyllum, and evidence for the distinctiveness ofS. cariophyllum subsp.ehrenbergii (sect.Petota). Syst Bot 22:3143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Ross, H. 1986. Potato breeding — Problems and perspectives. Adv Plant Breed Suppl. 13. Verlag, Paul Parey, Berlin.Google Scholar
  183. Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M., H.J. van Eck, J. Draaistra, P.M. van Zandvoort, E. Jacobsen, and J. Bakker. 1998. An online catalogue of AFLP markers covering the potato genome. Mol Breed 4:73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Ruiz de Galerreta, J.I., A. Carrasco, A. Salazar, I. Barrena, E. Iturritxa, R. Marquinez, F.J. Legorburu, and E. Ritter. 1998. WildSolanum species as resistance sources against different pathogens of potato. Potato Res 41:57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Salas, A.R., D.M. Spooner, Z. Huamán, R.V. Torres-M., R. Hoekstra, K. Schüler, and R. J. Hijmans. In press. Taxonomy and new genetic resources of wild potato collections in central Peru (Departments of Ancash, Huancavelica, La Libertad, Lima) in 1999, and data on collections in southern Peru in 1998. Am Potato J.Google Scholar
  186. Sangowama, B.G. 1989. Meiotic studies in a wild tetraploid potato(Solanum hjertingii Hawkes). Cytologia 54:617–626.Google Scholar
  187. Schneider, K, and D.S. Douches. 1997. Assessment of PCR-based simple sequence repeats to fingerprint North American potato cultivars. Am Potato J 74:149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Schweitzer, G., N. Borisjuk, L. Borisjuk, M. Stadler, T. Stelzer, L. Schilde, and V. Hemleben. 1993. Molecular anlaysis of highly repeated genome fractions inSolanum and their use as markers for the characterization of species and cultivars. Theor Appl Genet 85:801–808.Google Scholar
  189. Simmonds, N.W. 1969. Variegated mutant plastid chimeras of potatoes. Heredity 24:303–306.Google Scholar
  190. Skov, F. 2000. Potential plant distribution mapping based on climatic similarity. Taxon 49:503–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sokal, R.R., and R.R. Sneath. 1963. Principles of Numerical Taxonomy. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  192. Sosinski, B., and D.S. Douches. 1996. Using polymerase chain reaction-based DNA amplification to fingerprint North American potato cultivars. Hortscience 31:130–133.Google Scholar
  193. Spooner, D.M 1994. Germplasm availability, species boundaries, and interrelationships of wild and cultivated potatoes(Solanum sect.Petota).In: Fortunato, R., N. Bacigalupo, J.C. Gamerro, and I. Gamundí (eds), Proceedings of the IV Congreso Latinoamericano de Botánica. Monogr Syst Bot Missouri Bot Gard 68:477–487.Google Scholar
  194. Spooner, D.M., G.J. Anderson, and R.K. Jansen. 1993a. Chloroplast DNA evidence for the interrelationships of tomatoes, potatoes, and pepinos (Solanaceae). Am J Bot 80:676–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Spooner, D.M., and J.B. Bamberg. 1994. Potato genetic resources: sources of resistance and systematics. Am Potato J 71:325–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Spooner, D.M., J.B. Bamberg, J.P. Hjerting, and J. Gómez. 1991a. Mexico, 1988 potato germplasm collecting expedition and utility of the Mexican potato species. Am Potato J 68:29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Spooner, D.M. and R.T. Castillo-T. 1997. Reexamination of series relationships of South American wild potatoes (Solanaceae:Solanum sect.Petota): Evidence from chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Am J Bot 84:671–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Spooner, D.M., R. Castillo-T., and J. López-L. 1992a Ecuador, 1991 potato germplasm collecting expedition: taxonomy and new germplasm resources. Euphytica 60:159–169.Google Scholar
  199. Spooner, D.M., R. Castillo-T, and J. López-J. 1993b. Synonymy within wild potatoes(Solanum sect.Petota: Solanaceae): The case ofSolanum andreanum. Syst Bot 18:209–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Spooner, D.M., R. Castillo-T, L. López-J., R. Pineda, R. León-P., A. Vargas, M.L. Garcia, and J.B. Bamberg. 1995a. Colombia and Venezuela 1992 wild potato(Solanum sect.Petota) germplasm collecting expedition: taxonomy and new germplasm resources. Euphytica 81:45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Spooner, D.M., and A.M. Clausen. 1993. Wild potato(Solanum sect.Petota) germplasm collecting expedition to Argentina in 1990, and status of Argentinian potato germplasm resources. Potato Res 36:3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Spooner, D.M., A. Conteras-M., and J.B. Bamberg. 1991b. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Chile, 1989, and utility of the Chilean species. Am Potato J 68:681–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Spooner, D.M., D.S. Douches, and A. Contreras-M. 1992b. Allozyme variation withinSolanum sect.Petota, seriesEtuberosa (Solanaceae). Am J Bot 79:467–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Spooner, D.M., R. Hoekstra, R. van den Berg, and V. Martínez. 1998.Solanum sect.Petota in Guatemala: taxonomy and genetic resources. Am J Potato Res 75:3–17.Google Scholar
  205. Spooner, D.M., R. Hoekstra, and B. Vilchez. 2001a.Solanum sectionPetota in Costa Rica: Taxonomy and genetic resources. Am J Potato Res 78:91–98.Google Scholar
  206. Spooner, D.M., A. Rivera-Peña, R.G. van den Berg, and K Schüler. 2000. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997: Taxonomy and new germplasm resources. Am J Potato Res 77:261–270.Google Scholar
  207. Spooner, D.M., A.R. Salas, Z. Huamán, and R.J. Hijmans. 1999. Wild potato collecting expedition in southern Peru (Departments of Apurímac, Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Puno, Tacna) in 1998: taxonomy and new genetic resources. Am J Potato Res 76:103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Spooner, D.M., and K.J. Sytsma1992. Reexamination of series relationships of Mexican and Central American wild potatoes(Solanum sect.Petota): evidence from chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Syst Bot 17:432–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Spooner, D.M., K.J. Sytsma, and E. Conti. 1991c. Chloroplast DNA evidence for genome differentiation in wild potatoes(Solanum. sect.Petota: Solanaceae). Am J Bot 78:1354–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Spooner, D.M., K.J. Sytsma, and J.F. Smith. 1991d. A molecular reexamination of diploid hybrid speciation ofSolanum raphanifolium. Evolution 45:757–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Spooner, D.M., J. Tivang, J. Nienhuis, J.T. Miller, D.S. Douches, and A. Contreras-M. 1996. Comparison of four molecular markers in measuring relationships among the wild potato relativesSolanum sectionEtuberosum (subgenusPotatoe). Theor Appl Genet 92:532–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Spooner, D.M., M.L. Ugarte, and P.W. Skroch. 1997. Species boundaries and interrelationships of two closely related sympatric diploid wild potato species,Solanum astleyi andS. boliviense, based on RAPDs. Theor Appl Genet 95:764–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Spooner, D.M., and R.G. van den Berg. 1992a. An analysis of recent taxonomic concepts in wild potatoes(Solanum sect.Petota). Genet Res Crop Evol 39:23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Spooner, D.M., and R. van den Berg. 1992b. Species limits and hypotheses of hybridization ofSolanum berthaultii Hawkes andSolanum tarijense Hawkes: Morphological data. Taxon 41:685–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Spooner, D.M. and R.G. van den Berg. In press a Quantitative assessment of corolla shape variation in MexicanSolanum sect.Petota.In: Van den Berg, R.G., G.M. van der Weerden, G.W.M. Barendse, and C. Mariani (eds), Solanaceae V: Proceedings of the Vth International Solanaceae Conference, July 23–29, 2000, Nijmegen. Nijmegen University Press, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  216. Spooner, D.M., R. van den Berg, and J.B. Bamberg. 1995b. Examination of species boundaries ofSolanum seriesDemissa and potentially related species in seriesAcaulia and seriesTuberosa (sect.Petota). Syst Bot 20:295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Spooner, D.M., R.G. van den Berg, W. García, and M.L. Ugarte. 1994. Bolivia potato germplasm collection expeditions 1993, 1994: Taxonomy and new germplasm resources. Euphytica 79:137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Spooner, D.M., R.G. van den Berg, and J.T. Miller. 2001b. Species and series boundaries ofSolanum seriesLongipedicellata (Solanaceae) and phenetically similar species in seriesDemissa and seriesTuberosa: Implications for a practical taxonomy of SectionPetota. Amer J Bot.Google Scholar
  219. Spooner, D.M., R.G. Van den Berg, A. Rivera-Peña, P. Velguth, A. del Rio, and A.R. Salas. In press b. Taxonomy of Mexican and Central American Members ofSolanum SeriesConicibaccata (sect.Petota). Syst Bot.Google Scholar
  220. Stadler, M., T. Stadler, N. Borisjul, C. Zanke, L. Schilde-Rentschler, and V. Hemleben. 1995. Distribution of novel and known repeated elements ofSolanum and applications for the identification of somatic hybrids amongSolanum species. Theor Appl Genet 91:1271–1278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Staub, J.E., F.C. Serquen, and M. Gupta. 1996. Genetic markers, map construction, and their application in plant breeding. Hortscience 31:729–741.Google Scholar
  222. Stuessy, T.F. 1990. Plant taxonomy: The systematic evaluation of comparative data. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  223. Tanksley, S.D., M.W. Ganal, J.P. Prince, M.C. de Vicente, M.W. Bonierbale, P. Broun, T.M. Fulton, J.J. Giovannoni, S. Grandillo, G.B. Martin, R. Messeguer, J.C. Miller, L. Miller, A.H. Patterson, O. Pineda, M.S. Röder, R.A. Wing, W. Wu, and N.D. Young. 1992. High density molecular linkage maps of the tomato and potato genomes. Genetics 132:1141–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Ugent, D. 1970a The potato. Science 170:1161–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Ugent, D. 1970b.Solanum raphanifolium, a Peruvian wild potato species of hybrid origin. Bot Gaz (Crawfordsville) 131:225–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Ugent, D., T. Dillehay, and C. Ramírez. 1987. Potato remains from a late Pleistocene settlement in south central Chile. Econ Bot 4:17–27.Google Scholar
  227. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2000. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN); http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/croplist.pl. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.Google Scholar
  228. Valkonen, J.P.T. 1994. Nuclear DNA content of theSolanum spp. in the seriesEtuberosa as determined by laser flow cytometry. Ann Appl Biol 125:589–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Valkonen, J.P.T., M. Orrillo, S.A. Slack, R.L. Plaisted, and K.N. Watanabe. 1995. Resistance to viruses in F1 hybrids produced by direct crossing between diploidSolanum seriesTuberosa and diploidS. brevidens (seriesEtuberosa) usingS. phureja for rescue pollination. Plant Breed. 114: 421–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Van den Berg, R.G. and N. Groendijk-Wilders. 1993. Light sprout morphology of wild tuberiferousSolanum species. Acta Bot Neerl 42:37–49.Google Scholar
  231. Van den Berg, R.G., and N. Groendijk-Wilders. 1999. Numerical analysis of the taxa of seriesCircaeifolia (Solanum sect.Petota).In: Nee, M., D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester, and J.P. Jessop (eds), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. pp. 213–226.Google Scholar
  232. Van den Berg, R.G., N. Groendijk-Wilders, and J.P. Kardolus. 1996. The wild ancestors of cultivated potato: The brevicaule-complex. Acta Bot Neerl 45:157–171.Google Scholar
  233. Van den Berg, R.G., N. Groendijk-Wilders, M.J. Zevenbergen, and D.M. Spooner. In press. Molecular systematicsof Solanum seriesCircaeifolia (Solanum SectionPetota) based On AFLP and RAPD Markers.In: Van den Berg, R.G., G.M. van der Weerden, G.W.M. Barendse, and C. Mariani (eds), Solanaceae V: Proceedings of the Fifth International Solanaceae Conference, July 23–29, 2000, Nijmegen. Nijmegen University Press, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  234. Van den Berg, R.G., J.T. Miller, M.L. Ugarte, J.P. Kardolus, J. Villand, J. Nienhuis, and D.M. Spooner. 1998. Collapse of morphological species in the wild potatoSolanum brevicaule complex (Solanaceae: Sect.Petota). Am J Bot 85:92–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Van den Berg, R.G., and D.M. Spooner. 1992. A reexamination of infraspecific taxa of a wild potato,Solanum microdontum (Solanum sect.Petota: Solanaceae). Pl Syst Evol 182:239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Van der Heijden, G.W.A.M., and R.G. van den Berg. 1997. Quantitative assessment of corolla shape variation inSolanum sect.Petota by computer image analysis. Taxon 46:49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Van Eck, H.J., J.R. van der Voort, J. Draaistra, P. van Zandvoort, E. van Enckevort, B. Segers, J. Peleman, E. Jacobsen, J. Helder, and J. Bakker. 1995. The inheritance and chromosomal location of AFLP markers in a non-inbred potato offspring. Mol Breed 1:397–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Watanabe, K., and S.J. Peloquin. 1989. Occurrence of 2n pollenand ps gene frequencies in cultivated groups and their related wild species in tuber-bearing Solanums. Theor Appl Genet 78:329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Watanabe, K., and S.J. Peloquin. 1991. The occurrence and frequency of 2n pollen in 2x, 4x, and 6x wild, tuber-bearingSolanum species from Mexico, and Central and South America. Theor Appl Genet 82:621–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Waugh, R., D.R. Glendinning, N. Duncan, and W. Powell. 1990. Chloroplast DNA variation in European potato cultivars. Potato Res 33:505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Wendel, J.F., and J.J. Doyle. 1998. Phylogenetic incongruence: window into genome history and molecular evolution.In: Soltis, D.E., P.S. Soltis, and J.J. Doyle (eds), Molecular Systematics of Plants II: DNA Sequencing. pp. 265–296.Google Scholar
  242. Wilkinson, M.J., A. Donnelly, and I. Black 1994. The Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC). Inventory for 1994. Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, UK.Google Scholar
  243. Wolfe, A.D., and A Liston. 1998. Contributions of PCR-based methods to plant systematics and evolutionary biology.In: Soltis, P.S. and J.J. Doyle (eds), Plant Molecular Systematics II: DNA sequencing. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 43–86.Google Scholar
  244. Zimmerer, K.S., and D.S. Douches. 1991. Geographical approaches to crop conservation: the partitioning of genetic diversity in Andean potatoes. Econ Bot 45:176–189.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA, Agricultural Research Service,Department of HorticultureUniversity of WisconsinMadison
  2. 2.International Potato Center (CIP)La MolinaPeru

Personalised recommendations