American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 83, Issue 5, pp 397–408

Effects of pest and soil management systems on potato diseases

Article

Abstract

Long-term cropping systems research is important in order to reduce production costs, to control crop pests, and to optimize the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Soil amendment use, improved disease management practices, and careful cultivar choice are some of the potential components for improving potato production systems. This research was conducted in long-term cropping systems plots in order to evaluate the impact of soil amendments, pest management practices, and cultivar on foliar and soil-borne potato diseases and to assess the relationships of soil and pest management practices to disease levels and soil microbial activity. Fungicide applications for management of foliar diseases varied between the pest management systems (e.g., biological, reduced input, and conventional). Incidence of potato foliar diseases was quantified five times during the cropping season. The impact of soil amendment and pest management practices on soil microbial activity and tuber-borne diseases was also investigated. Low incidences of foliar and selected soil-borne diseases were recorded. Disease levels varied between years, cultivars, pest management, and soil amendments. Significant differences between cultivars were detected for early blight, white mold, and black dot. The cultivar Superior had higher incidence of white mold and black dot, while cv Atlantic had higher early blight incidence. Pest management system significantly affected foliar early blight incidence in 1998, but not in 1997. Pest management system did not affect late blight, white mold, or black dot incidence, or tuber disease incidence in either year. The addition of soil amendments significantly impacted tuber black dot incidences. Microbial activity responded to increasing temperature as the season progressed and was significantly enhanced by the addition of manure and compost soil amendments; however, lower disease incidence was not associated with increased microbial activity. While pest management practices were not major determinants of disease levels in these experiments, the results show that soil amendments can increase incidence of selected tuber diseases and microbial activity in soils.

Additional key words

Potato diseases cropping systems soil amendments microbial activity compost manure Solanum tuberosum 

Resumen

La investigación sobre sistemas de cultivo a largo plazo es importante para reducir costos de producción, controlar enfermedades y optimizar la sostenibilidad de los sistemas agro ecológicos. Las enmiendas de suelo, prácticas mejoradas de manejo de enfermedades y cuidadosa elección del cultivar, son algunos de los componentes potenciales para mejorar los sistemas de producción de papa. Esta investigación fue realizada en parcelas de cultivo a largo plazo, con el objeto de evaluar el impacto de enmiendas de suelo, manejo de enfermedades y cultivar empleado, sobre las enfermedades foliares y las transmitidas por el suelo y de evaluar las relaciones del suelo y prácticas de manejo de plagas con los niveles de enfermedad y actividad microbiana del suelo. Las aplicaciones de funguicidas para el control de enfermedades foliares, varió con los sistemas de manejo sanitario (biológico, gasto reducido y convencional). La incidencia de enfermedades foliares se evaluó cinco veces durante el desarrollo del cultivo. También se investigó el efecto de enmiendas, prácticas de control sobre la actividad microbiana del suelo y las enfermedades transmitidas por tubérculos. Se registró baja incidencia de enfermedades foliares y transmitidas por el suelo. Los niveles de enfermedad variaron entre años, cultivares, manejo sanitario y enmiendas de suelo. Se detectaron diferencias significativas entre cultivares para tizón temprano, moho blanco y mancha negra. La variedad Superior tuvo la más alta incidencia de moho blanco y mancha negra, mientras que el cultivar Atlantic tuvo mayor incidencia de tizón temprano. El sistema de manejo sanitario afectó significativamente la incidencia de tizón temprano, moho blanco o mancha negra en 1998, pero no en 1997. El sistema de manejo sanitario no afectó la incidencia de tizón tardío, moho blanco, mancha negra o enfermedades al tubérculo en ambos años. La aplicación de enmiendas al suelo influenció significativamente la incidencia de mancha negra en el tubérculo. La actividad microbiana respondió al aumento de temperatura a medida del avance de la estación y fue significativamente incrementada cuando se agregó al suelo enmiendas de estiércol y compost; sin embargo, la baja incidencia de enfermedad no estuvo asociada con el incremento de la actividad microbiana. Aunque las prácticas de manejo sanitario no fueron un determinante del nivel de enfermedades en estos experimentos, los resultados demuestran que las enmiendas pueden incrementar la incidencia de determinadas enfermedades al tubérculo y la actividad microbiana del suelo.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA-ARS, New England Plant, Soil and Water LaboratoryOronoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, Deering HallUniversity of MaineOronoUSA

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