American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 82, Issue 4, pp 321–328 | Cite as

Environmental impacts of potato nutrient management

  • Joan R. Davenport
  • Paul H. Milburn
  • Carl J. Rosen
  • Robert E. Thornton
Symposium Presentation Of The Potato Association Of America Production And Management Section

Abstract

Use of soluble chemical fertilizers for crop production, particularly to supply nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, has increased potato yields and quality for several decades. Over the past 10 years, however, there has been an increased concern over the environmental impact of agricultural fertilizers, particularly as nonpoint sources of water pollution. Currently, nitrogen is a target for improved use efficiencies in potato to reduce potential nitrate contamination of groundwater. Phosphorus management is increasingly being examined as a potential non-point source contaminant of surface waters. Potato researchers throughout North America are conducting studies that focus on maintaining or enhancing crop production while reducing the potential of negative environmental impacts. Precision agriculture, cover crops, slow-release fertilizers, and genetic manipulation are key strategies being studied. Concurrently, new challenges are arising, such as concerns over phosphorus leaching and heavy metal contamination in fertilizers. These have the potential to restrict nutrient use in agricultural systems, requiring both potato producers and scientists to seek additional alternatives to improve nutrient-use efficiency.

Additional key words

fertilizers nitrogen phosphorus heavy metals precision agriculture non-point source contamination genetic manipulation cover crops 

Resumen

El manejo de nutrientes puede disminuir la severidad de muchas enfermedades importantes de papa y ciertas prácticas, tal como el mantener un pH bajo para el control de la sarna, se ha seguido con este simple objetivo. Con frecuencia, los productores de papa han incorporado modificaciones de la fertilidad con respecto a ciertas enfermedades en particular y condiciones de cultivo. Desgraciadamente, la reducción de la enfermedad puede ser consistente con una fertilización óptima para rendimiento, calidad y rentabilidad. Lo que puede controlar una enfermedad puede no ser bueno para otra enfermedad y los mecanismos involucrados son a menudo complejos e insuficientemente comprendidos. Los productores de papa continuarán experimentando limitaciones conflictivas en la producción. Estas limitaciones incluyen la influencia del precio de los artículos para mejorar el rendimiento y la reducción de los gastos; influencia de las demandas del consumidor para el mejoramiento de la calidad; cambios de variedad debido a las consideraciones anteriores más que a la reducción por enfermedades; incremento en la presión para la justificación; cambios y reducción en el uso de pesticidas; preocupación continua acerca del movimiento del nitrógeno y fósforo en el agua del suelo y su pérdida y un aumento de atención en la rotación de cultivos. En el lado positivo, las estrategias en el manejo de nutrientes entes para situaciones altamente específicas continúan mejorando y las prácticas referentes a los nutrientes y la variabilidad de las enfermedades dentro del campo se están volviendo más sofisticadas. En este contexto, existen oportunidades para el manejo de practicas culturales que reducen la presión de la enfermedad y la confianza en el control químico. Para estar efectivamente integrado a tales sistemas especializados de manejo, el mecanismo de estas medidas de control y las condiciones bajo las cuales son practica, necesitarán ser mejor comprendidas. Asimismo, las respuestas de estas tácticas necesitan ser mejor cuantificadas para permitir un adecuado análisis costo-beneficio. Con referencia a los efectos de los pesticidas agrícolas en la seguridad alimentaria, los trabajadores y el medio ambiente, el manejo de los nutrientes disponibles para la planta pueden convertirse en una manera de enfocar la practica para la supresión de enfermedades en el futuro.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan R. Davenport
    • 1
  • Paul H. Milburn
    • 2
  • Carl J. Rosen
    • 3
  • Robert E. Thornton
    • 4
  1. 1.Washington State University - ProsserProsserUSA
  2. 2.Potato Research CentreAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaFrederictonCanada
  3. 3.1991 Upper Buford CircleUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  4. 4.Department of Horticulture & Landscape ArchitectureWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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