Advertisement

The Botanical Review

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 411–445 | Cite as

Chemical treatments to reduce postharvest spoilage of fruits and vegetables

  • Wilson L. Smith
Article

Keywords

Botanical Review Postharvest Decay Dehydroacetic Acid Bacterial Decay Residue Tolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Akamine, Ernest K., andToru Arisumi. 1952. The control of post-harvest storage decay of papaya. Hawaii Agr. Expt. Sta. Prog. Notes82: 1–6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alcorn, Stanley M., andP. A. Ark. 1955. The antibiotic candicidin, a protectant dip against brown rot infection of peach fruit. Plt. Disease Reptr.39(3): 210–212.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ark, P. A. andJ. P. Thompson. 1959. Control of certain diseases of plants with antibiotics from garlic (Allium sativum L.). Plt. Disease Reptr.43(2): 276–282.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aycock, R. 1955. The effect of certain post storage treatments on soft rot development in sweetpotatoes. Plt. Disease Reptr.39(5): 409–413.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ayres, John C., andErvin L. Denisen. 1958. Maintaining freshness of berries using selected packaging materials and antifungal agents. Food Tech.12(10): 562–567.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barger, W. R., andL. A. Hawkins. 1925. Borax as a disinfectant for citrus fruit. Jour. Agr. Res.30: 189–192.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    —,James S. Wiant, W. T. Pentzer, A. Lloyd Ryall, andD. H. Dewey. 1948. A comparison of fungicidal treatments for the control of decay of California cantaloupes. Phytopath.38: 1019–1024.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barnes, G. L., andW. R. Kays. 1960. Preliminary testing of certain fungicides as post-harvest treatments for prevention of mold development on blackberries. Oklahoma Agr. Expt. Sta. Processed Series-P 355, 7 pp.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Becker, R. F., R. N. Goodman, andH. S. Goldberg. 1957. Prolonging the shelf life of refrigerated prepackaged spinach with antibiotics. Antibiotics Annual 1957–58, pp. 229–235.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ———. 1958. Post-harvest treatment to control strawberry fruit rot. Plt. Disease Reptr.42(9): 1066–1068.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berry, S. Z. 1958. Effects of an ethylene dichloride and trichloriethane mixture on three citrus fruit pathogens. Plt. Disease Reptr.42(1): 102–106.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    —. 1958. Relative effects of ethylene thionocarbamate and Dowicide A-hexamine on four citrus fruit pathogens. Plt. Disease Reptr.42(4): 467–473.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bratley, C. O., andA. S. Mason. 1937. Control of black rot of pineapples in transit. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 511, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brody, H. D., andF. J. Francis. 1956. The effect of streptomycin on prepackaged spinach. Abs. of paper presented Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 53 meeting No 197: 28.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brooks, C., J. S. Cooley andD. F. Fisher. 1923. Oiled wrappers, oils, and waxes in the control of apple scald. Jour. Agr. Res.26(11): 513–536.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    -,E. V. Mill, C. O. Bratley, J. S. Cooley, Paul V. Mook, andHoward B. Johnson. 1932. Effect of solid and gaseous carbon dioxide upon transit diseases of certain fruits and vegetables. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 318, 60 pp.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    -,C. O. Bratley andL. P. McColloch. 1936. Transit and storage diseases of fruits and vegetables as affected by initial carbon dioxide treatments. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 519, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burkholder, C. L., andEric G. Sharvelle. 1951. Peach brown-rot control in orchard, storage and transit. Purdue Univ. Agr. Ext. Service Bul. 364, 16 pp.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cant, Rodyne R. andK. E. Nelson. 1957. Factors affecting the concentration of the sulfur dioxide in fumigation atmospheres for table grapes. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.69: 240–249.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cappellini, R. A., A. W. Stretch andG. S. Walton. 1961. Effects of sulfur dioxide on the reduction of postharvest decay of Latham red raspberries. Plt. Disease Reptr.45(4): 301–303.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    ——. 1962. Control of postharvest decays of peaches. Plt. Disease Reptr.46(1): 31–33.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cardinell, H. A. andC. Quinn Barr. 1949. Packing-house treatments of Michigan peaches. Mich. Arg. Expt. Sta. Quart. Bul.32: 70–93.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    ——. 1952. Post-harvest tests with peaches to reduce spoilage. Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Quart. Bul.35: 39–51.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carroll, V. J., R. A. Benedict andC. L. Wrenshall. 1957. Delaying vegetable spoilage with antibiotics. (Abs.) Food Tech.11(4, suppl.): 25–26.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Childs, J. F. L. andE. A. Siegler. 1946. Controlling orange decay. Indus. and Engin. Chem. Indus. Ed.38: 82–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cook, Harold T., andW. T. Pentzer. 1956. Supplements to refrigeration. Amer. Soc. Refrig. Engin. Air Conditioning Refrigerating Data Book. Applications volume 1956–57. Sec. III: (25–01)-(25–10).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cooley, J. S., andJ. H. Crenshaw. 1931. Control ofBotrytis rot of pears with chemically treated wrappers. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 177, 10 pp.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cox, R. S. 1955. A preliminary report on diseases of lettuce in the Everglades and their control. Plt. Disease Reptr.39(5): 421–423.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    —,V. J. Carroll andR. A. Benedict. 1957. Studies on the etiology and control of the radish pit disease. (Abs.) Phytopath.47: 7.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cuille, J., andA. Yvon. 1954. Influence des traitements chimiques sur la conservation des agrumes. Fruits9: 314–318.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Daines, Robert H. 1942. Soft rot of sweet potatoes and its control. N. J. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 698, 14 pp.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dearing, William H., andFordyce R. Heilman. 1950. The effect of antibacterial agents on the intestinal flora of patients: The use of aureomycin, chloromycetin, dihydrostreptomycin, sulfasuxidine and sulfathalidine. Gastroenterology16: 12–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Di Marco, G. R., andB. H. Davis. 1957. Prevention of decay of peaches with post-harvest treatments. Plt. Disease Reprt.41(4): 284–288.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    ——. 1957. Prevention of decay of strawberries with post-harvest treatments. Plt. Disease Reptr.41(5): 460–464.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eaks, I. L. 1956. Effect of hydrocooling on oranges. Citrus Leaves36(2): 9, 33.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    —,J. W. Eckert andC. N. Roistacher. 1958. Ammonia gas fumigation for control ofRhizopus rot on peaches. Plt. Disease Rptr.42(7): 846–848.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    English, Harley, andFisk Gerhardt. 1942. Effect of carbon dioxide and temperature on the decay of sweet cherries under simulated transit conditions. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.40: 172–176.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    —,T. R. Wright andEdwin Smith. 1948. Chemicals cut storage losses. Better Fruit43(2): 9–11, 22.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Erickson, Louis C., Thomas De Wolfe andB. L. Brannaman. 1958. Growth of some citrus-fruit pathogens as affected by 2, 4-D and 2, 4, 5- T. Bot. Gaz.120: 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fidler, J. C., andR. G. Tomkins. 1939. Dipping for the control of fungal rotting of citrus fruit. Gt. Brit. Food Invest. Bd. Rept.1938: 189–190.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Francis, F. J. 1955. Prepeeled carrots. Pre-Pack-Age9 (4): 8, 10–11.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    —. 1956. Prepackaged squash. Pre-Pack-Age9 (11): 8, 10–11.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    —. 1960. Discoloration and quality maintenance in cole slaw. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.75: 449–455.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    -, andM. A. Jimenez. 1958. Dehydroacetic acid treatments for prepeeled cubed squash. Paper presented Hort. Soc. meetings, Bloomington, Indiana, 1958.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Friedman, Bernard A. 1950. Spinach prepackaging tests. Pre-Pack-Age3(9): 25–29.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fulton, H. R., andJ. J. Bowman. 1924. Preliminary results with the borax treatment of citrus fruits for the prevention of blue mold rot. Jour. Agr. Res.28: 961–968.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gates, Charles M. 1949. Preliminary tests of fungicidally active compounds for the control of stem-end rot of oranges. Citrus Industry30(12): 11–14.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gerhardt, Fisk andA. Lloyd Ryall. 1939. The storage of sweet cherries as influenced by carbon dioxide and volatile fungicides. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 631, 20 pp.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gerwe, R. D. 1953. Cool peaches mean cold profits. American Fruit Grower73(7): 14, 22.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Godfrey, G. H., andA. L. Ryall. 1948. The control of transit and storage decays in Texas lemons. Texas Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 701, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Greenspan, Frank P., andDonald G. Mackeller. 1951. The application of peracetic acid germicidal washes to mold control of tomatoes. Food Technol.5: 95–97.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Grierson, W. 1957. Preliminary studies on cooling Florida oranges prior to packing. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Proc.70: 264–272.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    —, andF. W. Hayward. 1960. Precooling, packaging and fungicides as factors affecting appearance and keeping quality of oranges in simulated transit experiments. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.76: 229–239.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Guiscafre-Arrillaca, J. 1948. Sensitivity ofPenicillium digitatum to 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plt. Disease Reptr.32: 248–250.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gunther, F. A., M. J. Kolbezen, R. C. Blinn, E. A. Staggs, J. H. Barkley, G. B. Wacker, L. J. Klotz, C. N. Roistacher, andA. El-Ani. 1956. Ammonium succinate and inorganic ammonia-producing materials as fungicides for the control of blue-green mold decay of citrus fruits. Phytopath.46: 632–633.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gutter, Y. 1956. The influence of growth regulators on keeping quality of stored clementines. Israel Agr. Res. Sta. Ktavim.6: 119–123.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Haller, M. H., W. L. Smith, Jr., W. R. Wright andS. E. Womeldorph, Jr. 1952. Post-harvest fungicidal treatments of peaches tested in 1951. U. S. Bur. Plant Indus., Soils & Agr. Engin. Off. Rept. 267, 6 pp.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hardenburg, R. E., andR. E. Anderson. 1959. Evaluation of polyethylene box liners and diphenylamine for storage of apples. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.73: 57–70.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    ——. 1960. Further evaluation of diphenylamine for the control of apple scald. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.75: 47–51.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Harvey, E. M., andW. B. Sinclair. 1953. Biphenyl—its use in the citrus industry. Rept. Tech. Com. Citrus Assoc. Univ. of Calif., 27 pp.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Harvey, John M. 1952. Field applications of fungicide reduce decay in stored grapes (Abs.) Phytopath.42: 514.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    —. 1955. Decay in stored grapes reduced by field applications of fungicides. Phytopath.45: 137–140.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    —. 1956. Effects of frequency of sulfur dioxide fumigation during storage on decay and fumigation injury in Emperor graeps. Phytopath.46: 690–694.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    —. 1959. Reducation of decay in storage grapes by field applications of captan. Plt. Disease Reptr.43(8): 889–892.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    - andW. T. Pentzer. 1953. The value of fumigants. U. S. Dept. Agr. Plant Diseases, the Yearbook of Agriculture, 1953, pp. 844–850.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hatton, T. T., Jr., andJ. R. Winston. 1958. Overseas ventilated-shipping tests with Florida oranges and grapefruit. U. S. Dept. Agr. Marketing Research Rept. 274, 20 pp.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Heiberg, Barbara C., andGlen B. Ramsey. 1946. Fungistatic action of diphenyl on some fruit and vegetable pathogens. Phytopath.36: 887–891.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Heiligman, Fred, 1957. New wax cuts losses. Amer. Veg. Grower5(1): 28–29.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Heuberger, J. W., C. D. Munger andP. L. Poulos. 1949. Post-harvest chemical dip treatment of peaches for control of brown-rot disease in the package (Abs.) Phytopath.39: 9.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hopkins, E. F., andK. W. Loucks. 1947. The use of diphenyl in the control of stem-end rot and mold in citrus fruits. Citrus Indus.28(10): 5–9.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    ——. 1950. Prevention of the phytotoxic action of sodium orthophenylphenate on citrus fruits by hexamine. Science112: 720–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    ——, andA. A. McCornack. 1953. Decay control with Dowicide A-Hexamine treatment. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept.1953: 207–209.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    ———. 1953. Ammonium bicarbonate as fruit decay inhibitor. Fla. Expt. Sta. Ann. Rept.1953: 209–210.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Horn, N. L. 1952. Strawberry fungicide screening tests. Plt. Disease Reptr.36(8): 309–310.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    —. 1961. Control ofBotrytis rot of strawberries. Plt. Disease Reptr.45(10): 818–821.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hruschka, H. W., J. R. Winston andJ. M. Lutz. 1955. Effect of fungicides on shelf life of Florida Valencia oranges packed in consumer units. Pre-Pack-Age8 (7): 13–15.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jacob, H. E. 1929. The use of sulfur dioxide in shipping grapes. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 471, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kaufman, J. 1961. Parsnips. Produce Marketing4: 25–26.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kessler, K. L., andJ. R. Allison. 1948. Use of growth regulators on lemons in storage. Calif. Citrog.34: 24–25.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kienholtz, J. R., R. H. Robinson andE. S. Degman. 1949. Reduction of pear rots in Oregon by the use of a chemical wash. Ore. Expt. Sta. Cir. Inform. 160, 7 pp.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kirby, A. H. M., M. H. Moore andDorothy J. Wilson. 1955. StrawberryBotrytis rot (grey mould) control: A field trial of captan at East Mailing. Jour. Hort. Sci.30(4): 220–224.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Klotz, L. J. 1936. Nitrogen trichloride and other gases as fungicides. Hilgardia10(2): 27–52.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Koch, G., andV. J. Carroll. 1957. Prevention of post-harvest decay with antibiotics. Antibiotics Annual1956–57: 1010–1014.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kushman, L. J. 1961. Fungicidal control of decay in Porto Rico sweet-potatoes during marketing. U. S. Dept. Agr. Marketing Service Rept. 452, 17 pp.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lauriol, F. 1954. Les traitments chemiques desPenicillium des agrumes. Fruits9: 3–15.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lauritzen, J. I. 1931. Some effects of chilling temperatures on sweet-potatoes. Jour. Agr. Res.42(10): 617–627.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lewisi, D. A., andN. F. Somner. 1960. Polyethylene liners and fungicides for peaches and nectarines. Amer. Hort. Sci. Proc.76: 146–155.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lieberman, Morris, H. A. Schomer, B. D. Ezell, M. S. Wilcox, andF. E. McLaughlin. 1949. Report on spinach prepacking tests—1948. U. S. H.T.&S. Bur. Plant Indus. Soils & Agr. Engin. Off. Rept. 202, 13 pp.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Link, Harold L.., andHarry M. Pancoast. 1949. Antiseptic cooling retains top quality in perishables. Food Indus.21: 737–741.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Littauer, F. 1947. Control ofDiplodia stem-end rot and moulds in Shamouti oranges with nitrogen trichloride (Decco process). Palestine Jour. Bot. Rehovot Ser.6: 205–218.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    —. 1956. Combined versus single treatments for the control of citrus fruit rots. Israel Agr. Res. Sta. Ktavim.6: 129–133.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Long, J. K. 1953. Mould wastage in oranges can be controlled successfully. Agr. Gaz. N.S. Wales.64: 485–486, 494.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    —, andE. A. Roberts. 1954. New dip treatment for control of green mould in oranges. Agr. Gaz. N. S. Wales.65: 394–395, 412–413.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    ——. 1958. The phytotoxic and fungicidal effects of sodium o-phenylphenate in controlling green mould wastage in oranges. Aust. Jour. Agr. Res.9: 609–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Luria, S. E. 1946. Spontaneous bacterial mutations to resistance to antibacterial agents. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia. Quant. Biol.11: 130–137.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Manley, H. 1948. Iodized fruit wraps. Modern Packaging21(9): 152–153, 204–206, 208.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Marsh, R. W., J. T. Martin andAlice Crang. 1955. The control ofBotrytis rot (grey mould) of strawberries, and the effects of fungicide spray residues on the processed fruit. Jour. Hort. Sci.30(4): 225–233.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    —,H. B. S. Montgomery andK. L. Edney. 1957. Experiments on orchard spraying for the control of Gloeosporium storage rots of apples. Plant Path.6(2): 39–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Martin, W. J., J. M. Lutz andG. B. Ramsey. 1949. Control of black rot in washed, uncured sweet potatoes. Phytopath.39: 580–582.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mathur, P. B., andH. Subramanyam. 1956. Effect of a fungicidal wax coating on the storage behavior of mangoes. J. Sci. Food Agr.7: 673–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mattus, G. E. 1961. Fluorescence and apple scald. Virginia Fruit49: 32–36.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    —. 1961. Chemical inhibitors for apple scald control. Virginia Fruit49: 40–44.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    McClure, T. T. 1958. Brown and rhizopus rots of peaches as affected by hydrocooling, fungicides, and temperature. Phytopath.48: 322–323.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    —, andW. L. Smith, Jr. 1959. Postharvest decay of peaches as affected by temperatures after hydrocooling in water or Dowicide A solutions. Phytopath.49: 472–474.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    McColloch, L. P. 1953. Injuries from chilling and freezing. U. S. Dept. Agr. Plant Diseases, the Yearbook of Agriculture, 1953. pp. 826–830.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    —, andJohn T. Worthington. 1954. Ways to prevent chilling mature-green tomatoes. Pre-Pack-Age7(6): 22–25.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Middleton, John T. 1957. Status of the University’s citrus decay control program. Calif. Citrograph42(11): 372, 380.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Miller, E. V., J. R. Winston andG. A. Meckstroth. 1944. Studies on the use of formaldehyde and sodium ortho-phenyl-phenate in the control of decay in citrus fruits. Citrus Indus.25(10): 3, 15, 18.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Moore, R. C., andG. D. Oberle. 1961. Strawberry mold stopper. American Fruit Grower81: 20–21.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Morris, L. L., andHans Platinius. 1938. Low temperature injury to certain vegetables after harvest. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.36: 609–613.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mullin, R. S. 1957. Strawberry fruit rot sprays. Vegetable Growers News11(9): 3.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Nelson, K. E. 1958. Some studies of the action of sulfur dioxide in the control ofBotrytis rot of Tokay grapes. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.71: 183–189.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    —, andH. B. Richardson. 1961. Further studies on factors affecting the concentration of sulfur dioxide in fumigation atmospheres for table grapes. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.77: 337–350.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    —, andF. E. Tomlinson. 1958. Some factors influencing bleaching and wetness of Emperor and Tokay grapes. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.71: 190–198.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Newhall, W. F., andW. Grierson. 1955. A low-cost self-polishing, fungicidal water wax for citrus fruit. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.66: 146–154.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ogawa, Joseph A., Stuart D. Lydia andDarrell J. Weber. 1961. 2, 6-Dichloro-4-nitroaniline effective againstRhizopus fruit rot of sweet cherries. Plt. Disease Reptr.45(8): 636–638.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    —, andJerry K. Uyemoto. 1962. Effectiveness of 2, 6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline on development ofRhizopus rot of peach fruits at various temperatures (Abs.) Phytopath.52: 23.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Padfield, C. A. S. 1959. The use of diphenylamine and other chemicals to control superficial scald of apples. New Zealand Jour. Agr. Res.2: 953–970.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    —, andR. M. Smock. 1960. Control of superficial scald on Granny Smith applies using pre-harvest sprays of diphenylamine. New Zealand Jour. Agr. Res.3: 675–679.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Paine, Tom Fite, andMaxwell Finland. 1948. Observations on bacteria sensitive to, resistant to and dependent upon streptomycin. Jour. Bact.56: 207–218.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Pentzer, W. T., andW. R. Barger. 1941. A comparison of fungicidal treatments for the control ofBotrytis rot of grapes in storage. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.39: 281–284.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Person, L. H., E. O. Olson andW. J. Martin. 1948. Effectiveness of fungicides in controlling black rot of sweet potatoes. Phytopath.38: 474–479.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pierson, C. F. 1960. Postharvest fungicide treatments for reduction in decay in Anjou pears. Plt. Disease Reptr.44(1): 64–65.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Plank, J. E.van der, J. M. Rattray and G. F.van Wyk. 1940. The use of wraps containing o-phenylphenol for citrus fruits. Jour. Pomol. and Hort. Sci.18: 135–144.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Platinius, Hans, 1939. Effect of temperature on the rate of deterioration of fresh vegetables. Jour. Agr. Res.59: 41–58.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Poulos, P. L. 1949. The use of sodium hypochlorite for the control of the brown rot disease of peach in Delaware. Plt. Disease Reptr.33(11): 413–415.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    —, andJ. W. Heuberger. 1949. Peach brown rot: pre-harvest sprays and control in the orchard and in the package. (Abs.) Phytopath.39: 18.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Powell, Dwight. 1952. The effect of early spring fungicides onBotrytis cinerea. Plt. Disease Reptr.36(3): 97–98.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    —. 1954. The effect of captan on gray mold rot incidence and yield of strawberry. Plt. Disease Reptr.38(3): 209–211.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pryor, Dean E. 1950. Reduction of post-harvest spoilage in fresh fruits and vegetables destined for long distance shipment. Food Tech.4(2): 57–62.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ramsey, G. B., M. A. Smith andB. G. Heiberg. 1944. Fungistatic action of diphenyl on citrus fruit pathogens. Bot. Gaz.106: 74–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Roistacher, C. N., I. L. Eaks andL. J. Klotz. 1955. Ammonia gas to control blue-green mold decay of citrus fruits. Plt. Disease Reptr.39(3): 202–205.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    —,L. J. Klotz andI. L. Eaks. 1957. Blue-green mold on citrus, ammonia gas used in citrus packing plants as fumigant for control of blue-green mold on Valinceas, navels and lemons. Calif. Agr.11(10): 11–12.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    —— andM. J. Garber. 1960. Tests with volatile fungicides in packages of citrus fruits during shipments to eastern markets. Phytopath.50: 855–860.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ruehle, George D. 1940. Bacterial soft rot of potatoes in southern Florida. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 348, 36 pp.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ryall, A. L., andG. H. Godfrey. 1948. Dip and gas treatments for the reduction of post-harvest decay in Texas lemons. Phytopath.38: 1014–1018.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    -, andJohn M. Harvey. 1959. The cold storage of Vinifera grapes. U. S. Dept. Agr. Agr. Marketing Service Handbook 159, 46 pp.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schelhorn, Mathildevon. 1951. Control of microorganisms causing spoilage in fruit and vegetable products. Advn. Food Res.3: 429–482.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sharvelle, Eric G., andJ. S. Vandermark. 1952. Volatile chemicals for the inhibition of fruit losses in storage and transit. (Abs.) Phytopath.42: 19.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Shurtleff, M. C., andV. G. Shutak. 1952. Control of peach brown rot with the sodium salt of dehydroacetic acid. (Abs.) Phytopath.42: 19.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Smith, Ralph E., H. J. Ramsey, E. H. Smith, E. B. Babcock andC. O. Smith. 1907. The brown rot of the lemon. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 190, 72 pp.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Smith, W. L., Jr. 1955. Streptomycin sulfate for the reduction of bacterial soft rot of packaged spinach. Phytopath.45: 88–90.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    -, andM. H. Haller. 1953. Post-harvest decay control of peaches in 1952. U. S. Bur. Plant Indus., Soils and Agr. Engin. H.T.&S. Office Rept. 273, 7 pp.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    —, andR. E. Hardenburg. 1954. Antibiotic and other chemical dips reduce discoloration of packaged cole slaw. (Abs.) Phytopath.44: 389–390.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    —, andW. H. Redit. 1962. Reduction of peach decays by hydrocooling with chemical solutions and chemically treated ice. Plt. Disease Reptr.46(4): 221–226.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    —,M. H. Haller andT. T. McClure. 1956. Post-harvest treatments for reduction of brown andRhizopus rots of peaches. Phytopath.46: 261–264.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    -,W. H. Redit, P. L. Benfield, G. B. Ramsey, M. J. Ceponis. 1957. Peach hydrocooling, shipping and fungicidal tests. I-II. U. S. Agr. Marketing Serv. AMS-199, 20 pp.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Smock, R. M. 1956. A promising new method of scald control. N. Y. State Hort. Soc. Proc.101: 102–104.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    —. 1957. A comparison of treatments for control of the apple scald disease. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.69: 91–100.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    -. 1961. Methods of scald control on the apple. N. Y. (Cornell) State College Agr. Bul. 970, 55 pp.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Smoot, J. J., G. A. Meckstroth andC. F. Melvin. 1960. Promising decay inhibitors for postharvest use on Florida oranges. Plt. Disease Reptr.44(6): 383–386.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sommer, N. F., andF. G. Mitchell. 1959. Fruit shrivel control in peaches and nectarines. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.74: 199–205.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Stewart, W. S. 1948. Effect of plant growth regulators on stored citrus fruit. Calif. Citrog.34: 58, 80–84.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    —,J. E. Palmer andH. Z. Hield. 1952. Packinghouse experiments on the use of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid to increase storage life of lemons. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.59: 327–334.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Thomas, Frank B. 1952. Delaying decay of fruits after harvest. Penn. Agr. Expt. Sta. Prog. Report70: 2–4.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Thompson, B. D. 1958. Post-harvest chemical treatments for the control of strawberry fruit rots. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.71: 224–230.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Tomkins, R. G. 1934. Iodized wraps for the prevention of rotting of fruit. Jour. Pomol. and Hort. Sci.12: 311–320.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    —. 1937. Treated wraps for the prevention of rotting. Gt. Britain Food Invest. Bd. Rept.1936: 149–151.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    —. 1939. Treated wraps for the prevention of fungal rotting. Gt. Britain Food Invest. Bd. Rept.1938: 186–189.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    —, andS. A. Trout. 1931. The use of ammonia and ammonium salts for the prevention of green mould in citrus. Jour. Pomol. and Hort. Sci.9: 257–264.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Uota, M., andF. L. Cook. 1958. Improved methods needed for SO2 grape fumigation. Blue Anchor35(3): 20–21, 36.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Vandermark, J. S., andE. G. Sharvelle, 1962. Prevention of postharvest decay of stone fruits by volatile chemicals. Sci.115: 149–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Van Blaricom, L. O. 1959. The effect on decay of adding various reagents to the water for hydrocooled peaches. South Carolina Agr. Expt. Sta. Cir. 124, 17 pp.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Wade, G. C., andJ. R. Ward. 1956. The influence of fungicides and fruit maturity on the development of ripe spot and target rot of apples. Austral. Inst. Agr. Sci. Jour.22: 198–203.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wiant, James S., andC. O. Bratley. 1948. Spoilage of fresh fruits and vegetables in rail shipments unloaded at New York City, 1935–42. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 773, 62 pp.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Winkler, A. J., andH. E. Jacob. 1925. The utilization of sulfur dioxide in the marketing of grapes. Hilgardia1: 107–131.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Winston, J. R. 1935. Reducing decay in citrus fruits with borax. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 488, 32 pp.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    —. 1948. Decay of Florida citrus fruits and its control. Citrus Indus.29(2): 5–9, 22–23, 26.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    —, andG. A. Meckstroth. 1953. Control of orange decays by pyrrolidine alone and mixed with 2-aminopyridine. Citrus Indus.34(3): 8–10, 15.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    -, -R. H. Cubbedge andG. L. Roberts. 1953. Fungicidal screening tests for the control of decay of Florida oranges. U. S. Bur. Plant Indus., Soils and Agr. Engin. H.T.&S. Off. Rept. 292, 17 pp.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    -, -,G. L. Roberts andRandall H. Cubbedge. 1946. Fungicidal screening tests for the control of decay in Florida oranges. U. S. Bur. Plant Indus., Soils & Agr. Engin. H.T.&S. Off. Rept. 253, 26 pp.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    -, -, - and -. 1949. Fungicidal screening tests for the control of decay in Florida oranges. U. S. Bur. Plant Indus., Soils and Agr. Engin. H.T.&S. Off. Rept. 201, 26 pp.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Winter, J. D., R. H. Landon andW. H. Alderman. 1939. Use of CO2 to retard the development of decay in strawberries and raspberries. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc.37: 583–588.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wolford, E. R., andA. A. Anderson. 1945. Propionates control microbial growth in fruits, vegetables. Food Indus.17: 622–624, 726, 728, 730, 732, 734.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Young, William J., andE. S. Beneke. 1952. Treatments to prevent fruit storage rots. (Abs.) Phytopath.42: 24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1962

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilson L. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Marketing Service, Market Quality Research Division, Horticultural Crops BranchUnited States Department of AgricultureBeltsville

Personalised recommendations