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Economic Botany

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 311–327 | Cite as

Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies 1.Tricholoma Matsutake and Related Fungi

  • Wang Yun
  • Ian R. Hall
  • Lynley A. Evans
Article

Abstract

Matsutake are the edible fruiting bodies of a few species ofTricholoma. The principal species areT. matsutake, T. magnivelare, andT. caligatum. Related species areT. bakamatsutake, T. quercicola, T. fulvocastaneum andT. robustum. These occur naturally throughout the Northern Hemisphere associated mainly with softwood trees but also with members of the Fagaceae. However, none have ever been cultivated or successfully introduced into new areas. They are held in very high regard in Japan where annual consumption is approximately 3000 tons. Annual production of matsutake in Japan is less than 1000 tons with the balance imported from China, North and South Korea, Canada, the USA, Morocco and Taiwan. Matsutake only fruit in late summer and autumn and are not found in the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore, there is the opportunity for it to be introduced into Southern Hemisphere countries and fruiting bodies produced for out-of-season Japanese markets. Wholesale prices in Japan range from ¥3350 to ¥70 000/kg (US$27-560) with the price reflecting quality, origin and availability. Retail prices at the start of the season can be up to ¥160 000/kg (US$1275). This paper reviews published and our own unpublished information on matsutake, and highlights areas of research that might result in a method for the cultivation of these fungi.

Key Words

Tricholomataceae Tricholoma matsutake T. magnivelare T. caligatum ectomycorrhiza edible fungi hosts ecology key review 

Hongos ectomicorrizicos con cuerpos fructiferos comestibles. 1.Tricholoma matsutake y hongos emparentados

Resumen

Se llaman matsutake a los cuerpos fructiferos comestibles de algunas especies de Tricholoma. Las especies principales sonT. matsutake, T. magnivelare, yT. caligatum. Las especies emparentadas sonT. bakamatsutake, T. quercicoia, T. fulvocastaneum yT. robustum. La distributión natural de estas especies abarca a todo el hemisferio norte, asociadas principalmente con gimnospermas, pero también con miembros de Fagaceae. Sin embargo, ninguna especie ha sido cultivada ni introducida exitosamente a nuevas regiones. Son muy apreciados en Japón, donde se consumen anualmente unas 3000 toneladas. La productión anual de matsutake en Japón es inferior a 1000 toneladas, siendo el resto importado de China, Korea del Norte y del Sur, Canadá, EEUU, Marruecos y Taiwan. El matsutake sólo fructifica a fines de verano y otoño, y no crece en el hemisferio sur. Por lo tanto, existe la oportunidad de introducirlo a países del hemisferio sur y producir cuerpos fructíferos fuera de estación para los mercados Japoneses. En Japon los precios mayoristas se encuentran entre ¥3350 a ¥70 000/kg (US$27-560), siendo la variación consecuencia de la calidad, origen y facilidad de obtención. Los precios minoristas al comienzo de la estación pueden llegar a ¥160 000/kg (US$1275). Este trabajo reúne información publicada y nuestra información inédita sobre matsutake, y destaca las areas de investigación que podrían resultar en una metodología para cultivar estos hongos.

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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wang Yun
    • 1
  • Ian R. Hall
    • 1
  • Lynley A. Evans
    • 1
  1. 1.New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research LimitedInvermay Agricultural CentreMosgielNew Zealand

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