Economic Botany

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 183–191 | Cite as

Gaz of Khunsar: The manna of persia

  • Bahram Grami


Gaz is one of the most popular traditional sweets in Iran. Although millions of people enjoy it, the vast majority is completely unaware that this confection is made with a sweetening agent, gaz of Khunsar, exuded by the last instar nymph of a small insect (Cyamophila astragalicola Gegechkori,Psyllidae) and collected from a spiny shrub (Astragalus adscendens Boiss. & Haussk.,Leguminosae,) which grows wild in western central Iran. For those who enjoy it, the pleasant flavor of gaz is sufficient in itself, but for scientists the story of this fructose-rich exudate is more interesting.

Key Words

Astragalus Cyamophila gaz Iran manna Persia Psyllid 


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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bahram Grami
    • 1
  1. 1.WinonaUSA

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