Economic Botany

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 183–191

Gaz of Khunsar: The manna of persia

  • Bahram Grami

DOI: 10.1007/BF02861207

Cite this article as:
Grami, B. Econ Bot (1998) 52: 183. doi:10.1007/BF02861207


Gaz is one of the most popular traditional sweets in Iran. Although millions of people enjoy it, the vast majority is completely unaware that this confection is made with a sweetening agent, gaz of Khunsar, exuded by the last instar nymph of a small insect (Cyamophila astragalicola Gegechkori,Psyllidae) and collected from a spiny shrub (Astragalus adscendens Boiss. & Haussk.,Leguminosae,) which grows wild in western central Iran. For those who enjoy it, the pleasant flavor of gaz is sufficient in itself, but for scientists the story of this fructose-rich exudate is more interesting.

Key Words

Astragalus Cyamophila gaz Iran manna Persia Psyllid 

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bahram Grami
    • 1
  1. 1.WinonaUSA

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