The Botanical Review

, 49:331 | Cite as

Comparative morphology of monocot pollen and evolutionary trends of apertures and wall structures

  • Michael S. Zavada
Article

Abstract

Data on pollen aperture and wall ultrastructure are reviewed for the monocots. New ultrastructural data on 30 taxa representing 18 monocot families are also presented. The evolutionary trends of apertures and pollen wall structure are discussed and it is proposed that the evolutionary trends of pollen apertures and wall structure in the monocots parallel those proposed by Walker for the dicots. However, the importance of these trends differ for monocots, suggesting that the selective pressures affecting pollen wall and aperture evolution in dicots and monocots have been similar, but with different emphasis.

Sommaire

Données expérimentales sur l’ouverture de pollen et la ultrastructure du mur des Monocotylédones sont revus. Les nouvelles données expérimentales sur 30 taxa, représantantes 18 familles de Monocotylédones sont aussi presentés. Les cours évolutionnaires des ouvertures et structure du mur de pollen sont discutés et c’est proposé que les cours évolution-naires des ouvertures de pollen et structure du mur en Monocotylédones se mettent en parallèle de ceux proposes par Walker pour les Dicotylédones. Toutefois l’importance de ces cours sont différents pour les Monocotylédones, donnent que la selection naturelle touchant le mur de pollen et les cours évolutionnaires des ouvertures en Dicotylédones et Monocotyledones ont été semblables mais avec des accentuations différantes.

Абстракт

Конспект. Однодольны е обозреваются на дан ные ультраструктуры пыльцевой апертуры и стены. Новые ультраст руктурные данные 30 таксонов, представля ющих 18 родов однодольн ых, также представлены. Обсуждаются эволюци онные направления ап ертур и структуры пыльцевой стены, и предлагается, что эволюционные направления пыльцев ых апертур и структур ы стены для однодольных параллельным тем, кот орые Валкер предлага л для двудольных. Однако, важность этих направлений различа ется для однодольных в том, что отборные дав ления, влиявшие на эво люцию пыльцевой стены и апертуры для д вудольных и однодоль ных, были похожи друг на друга, но отлич ались в важности.

Literature Cited

  1. Ackerman, J. D. andN. H. Williams. 1980. Pollen morphology of the tribe Neottieae and its impact on the classification of the Orchidaceae. Grana Palynol.19: 7–18.Google Scholar
  2. —— 1981. Pollen morphology of the Chloraeinae (Orchidaceae: Diurideae) and related subtribes. Amer. J. Bot.68: 1392–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Afzelius, B. M. 1956. On the fine structure of the pollen wall inClivia miniata. Bot. Not.108: 141–143.Google Scholar
  4. Angold, R. E. 1967. The ontogeny and fine structure of the pollen grain ofEndymion non-scriptus. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.3: 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Argue, C. L. 1971. Pollen of the Butomaceae and Alismataceae. I. Development of the pollen wall inButomus umbellatus L. Grana Palynol.11: 131–144.Google Scholar
  6. —. 1972. Pollen of the Alismataceae and Butomaceae. Development of the nexine inSagittaria lunifolia L. Pollen & Spores14: 5–16.Google Scholar
  7. —. 1973. The pollen ofLimnocharis flava Buch.,Hydrocleis nymphoides (Willd.) Buch., andTenagocharis latifolia (Don) Buch. (Limnocharitaceae). Grana Palynol.13: 103–112.Google Scholar
  8. —. 1974. Pollen studies in the Alismataceae. Bot. Gaz.135: 338–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. —. 1976. Pollen studies in the Alismataceae with special reference to taxonomy. Pollen & Spores13: 161–202.Google Scholar
  10. Ayensu, E. S. andJ. J. Skvarla. 1974. Fine structure of Velloziaceae pollen. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club101: 250–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balogh, P. 1979. Pollen morphology of the tribe Cranichideae Endlicher subtribe Spiran-thinae Bentham (Orchidaceae). Orquidea7: 241–260.Google Scholar
  12. Bortenschlager, S., G. Erdtman andJ. Praglowski. 1966. Pollenmorphologische Notizen über einige Blütenpflanzen incertae sedis. Bot. Not.119: 160–169.Google Scholar
  13. Brighigna, L., F. C. Fiordi andM. R. Palandri. 1981. Ultrastructure investigations on the two-nucleate pollen grain ofTillandsia caputmedusae Morr. (Bromeliaceae). Amer. J. Bot.68: 1033–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carlquist, S. 1961. Pollen morphology of the Rapateaceae. Aliso5: 39–66.Google Scholar
  15. Caspers, N. andL. Caspers. 1976. Zur Oberflaechenskulpturierung der Pollinien MediterranerOrchis- undOphyrs- arten. Pollen & Spores18: 203–215.Google Scholar
  16. Chakrapani, P. andB. Raj. 1971. Pollen morphological studies in the Burmanniaceae. Grana Palynol.11: 164–179.Google Scholar
  17. Chanda, S. 1966. On the pollen morphology of the Centrolepidaceae, Restionaceae and Flagellariaceae with special reference to taxonomy. Grana Palynol.6: 355–415.Google Scholar
  18. — andI. K. Ferguson. 1978. Pollen morphology ofCalorophus andEmpodisma (Restionaceae) and its taxonomic significance. Kew Bull.33: 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. — andK. Ghosh. 1976. Pollen morphology and its evolutionary significance in Xanthorrhoeaceae. Pages 527–559in I. K. Ferguson and J. Muller. The evolutionary significance of the exine. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  20. — andJ. Rowley. 1967. Apertural types in pollen of the Restionaceae and Flagellariaceae. Grana Palynol.7: 16–36.Google Scholar
  21. Chardard, R. 1958. L’ultrastructure des grains de pollen d’Orchidacées. Rev. Cytol. Biol. Veg.19: 223–235.Google Scholar
  22. —. 1969. Aspects infrastructuraux de la maturation des grains de pollen de quelques Orchidacées. Rev. Cytol. Biol. Veg.32: 67–100.Google Scholar
  23. Clarke, G. C. S. andM. R. Jones. 1981. The northwest european pollen flora, 23. Dioscoreaceae. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.33: 45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Daghlian, C. P. 1981. A review of the fossil record of monocotyledons. Bot. Rev.47: 517–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doyle, J. A. 1969. Cretaceous angiosperm pollen of the Atlantic coastal plain and its evolutionary significance. J. Arnold Arbor.50: 1–35.Google Scholar
  27. —. 1973. The monocotyledons: Their evolution and comparative biology. V. Fossil evidence on the early evolution of the monocotyledons. Quart. Rev. Biol.48: 399–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dressier, R. L. andC. H. Dodson. 1960. Classification and phylogeny in the Orchidaceae. Annals Missouri Bot. Gard.47: 25–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dulieu, D. 1973. Etude morphologique de la surface pollinique dePonthieva maculata Lindl. Orchidaceae en microscopie électronique à balagage. Adansonia13: 229–234.Google Scholar
  30. Dunbar, A. 1973. Pollen development in theEleocharis palustris group (Cyperaceae). I. Ultrastructure and ontogeny. Bot. Not.126: 197–254.Google Scholar
  31. Ehler, N. andR. Schill. 1973. Die Pollenmorphologie der Bromeliaceae. Pollen & Spores15: 13–49.Google Scholar
  32. Erdtman, G. 1952. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  33. Faegri, K. andJ. Iversen. 1964. Textbook of pollen analysis. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  34. Grant, C. A. 1972. A scanning electron microscope survey of some Maydeae pollen. Grana Palynol.12: 177–184.Google Scholar
  35. Gullvag, B. 1964. The fine structure of the pollen ofClivia miniata. Grana Palynol.5: 258–263.Google Scholar
  36. Harling, G. 1958. Monograph of the Cyclanthaceae. Acta Horti Berg.18: 1–428.Google Scholar
  37. HeslopHarrison, J. 1968a. Tapetal origin of pollen coat substances inLilium. New Phytol.67: 779–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. —. 1968b. Wall development within the microspore tetradof Lilium loniflorum. Canad. J. Bot.46: 1185–1192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. —. 1968c. Synchrorous pollen mitosis and the formation of the generative cells in massulate orchids. J. Cell Sci.3: 457–466.Google Scholar
  40. —. 1971. The pollen wall: Structure and development. Pages 75–98in J. Heslop-Harrison. Pollen: Development and physiology. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  41. —. 1979. Pollen walls as adaptive systems. Annals Missouri Bot. Gard.66: 813–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hesse, M. 1980. Entwicklungsgeschichte und Ultrastructur von Pollenkitt und Exine bei nahe vermandten entomophilen und anemophilen Angiospermensippen der Alisma-taceae, Liliaceae, Juncaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae und Araceae. Pl. Syst. Evol.134: 229–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Horvat, F. 1966. Contribution à la connaissance de l’ultrastructure des parois du pollen deTradescantia paludosa L. Grana Palynol.6: 416–434.Google Scholar
  44. Huynh, K.-L. 1980. La morphologie du pollen dePandanus subg. Vinsonia (Pandanaceae) et sa signification taxonomique. Pollen & Spores12: 173–189.Google Scholar
  45. — andB. C. Stone. 1981. On a new subsection ofPandanus section Cauliflora (Pandanaceae) with paniculate staminate inflorescence structure, distinctive leaf anatomy and pollen morphology. Bot. J. Linn. Soc.83: 213–220.Google Scholar
  46. Kedves, M. 1980. Morphological investigations of recent Palmae pollen grains. Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung.26: 339–373.Google Scholar
  47. Kress, W. J., D. E. Stone andS. C. Sellers. 1978. Ultrastructure of exineless pollen:Heliconia (Heliconiaceae). Amer. J. Bot.65: 1064–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuprianova, L. A. 1948. Pollen morphology and the phylogeny of the monocotyledons. Comm. Komarov Bot. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR1: 163–262.Google Scholar
  49. —. 1967. Apertures of pollen grains and their evolution in angiosperms. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.3: 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ladd, P. G. 1977. Pollen morphology of some members of the Restionaceae and related families, with notes on the fossil record. Grana Palynol.16: 1–14.Google Scholar
  51. Larson, D. A. 1965. Fine structural changes in the cytoplasm of germinating pollen. Amer. J. Bot.52: 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. —,J. J. Skvarla andC. W. Lewis. 1962. An electron microscope study of exine stratification and fine structure. Pollen & Spores4: 233–246.Google Scholar
  53. Lee, R. E. 1961. Pollen dimorphism inTripogandra grandiflora. Baileya9: 53–56.Google Scholar
  54. Liem, A. S. N. andJ. van Andel. 1968. Electron microscopical observations on pollen grains of some grass species. Acta Bot. Neerl.17: 248–257.Google Scholar
  55. Maguire, B. 1969. Velloziaceae. In: Botany of the Guayana Highland—Part VII. Mem. New York Bot. Gard.18: 36–41.Google Scholar
  56. Mahabale, T. S. 1967. Pollen grains in the Palmae. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.4: 299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Majumbar, S. K. 1972. Ultrastructure ofAstroloba andHaworthia pollen wall. 30th Annual Meeting, 1st Pacific Reg. Conf. Electron Microscopy, Los Angeles: 220–221.Google Scholar
  58. Mattsson, O. 1976. The development of dimorphic pollen inTripogandra (Commelinaceae). Pages 168–183in I. K. Ferguson and J. Muller. The evolutionary significance of the exine. Linn. Soc. Sym. Ser. No. 1, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  59. Mepham, R. H. andG. R. Lane. 1969. Role of the tapetum in the development ofTrad escantia pollen. Nature221: 282–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. —— 1970. Observations on the fine structure of developing microspores ofTradescantia bracteata. Protoplasma70: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meyer, N. R. 1966. Investigations of the morphology of pollen grains of Nyphaeaceae and Helobiae for its classification and phylogeny. Pages 30–34in Znachenia palinologicheskogo analiza dlya stratigrafii i paleofloristiki. Nauka, Moskva.Google Scholar
  62. — andA. M. Yaroshevskaya. 1973. Electron microscopic investigation of pollen wall development of Angiospermae. Pages 70–73in Methodical problems of palynology. Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  63. Miyoshi, N. 1982. Noteworthy palynomorphs: Pollen grains united in dyads. I.C.P. Newsltr.5:7.Google Scholar
  64. Moore, H. E. 1973. The major groups of palms and their distribution. Gentes Herb.11: 27–141.Google Scholar
  65. Muller, J. 1979. Form and function in angiosperm pollen. Annals Missouri Bot. Gard.66: 593–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. —. 1981. Fossil pollen records of extant angiosperms. Bot. Rev.47: 1–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nair, P. K. K. 1960. Pollen grains of cultivated plants. I.Canna L. J. Indian Bot. Soc.39: 373–381.Google Scholar
  68. — andM. Sharma. 1963. Pollen grains ofCocos nucifera L. Grana Palynol.4: 373–379.Google Scholar
  69. —— 1965. Pollen morphology of the Liliaceae. J. Palynology Lucknow1: 38–61.Google Scholar
  70. Newton, G. D. andN. H. Williams. 1978. Pollen morphology of the Cypripedioideae and the Apostasioideae (Orchidaceae). Selbyana2: 169–182.Google Scholar
  71. Nilsson, S., J. Praglowski andL. Nilsson. 1977. Atlas of airborne pollen grains and spores in northern Europe. Naturoch Kultur, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  72. Panchukschurappa, M. G. 1965. Gametophyte and pollen structure inFurcraea gigantea Wul. Palynol. Bull. Lucknow1: 58–60.Google Scholar
  73. Parthasarathy, M. V. 1970. Fine structure of pollen surface in palms. Principes14: 55–62.Google Scholar
  74. Pettitt, J. M. 1981. Reproduction in seagrasses: Pollen development inThalassia hem-prichii, Halophila stipulacea andThalassodendron ciliatum. Ann. Bot.48: 609–622.Google Scholar
  75. — andA. C. Jermy. 1975. Pollen in hydrophilous angiosperms. Micron5: 377–405.Google Scholar
  76. Poole, M. M. andP. R. Hunt. 1980. Pollen morphology and the taxonomy of the Commelinaceae: An exploratory survey. American Commelinaceae. VIII. Kew Bull.34: 639–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Punt, W. 1968. Morphology of the American species of the subfamily Costoideae (Zingiberaceae). Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.7: 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. — andJ. W. Reumer. 1981. Alismataceae. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.33: 27–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. — andJ. G. Wessels Boer. 1966a. A palynological study in geonomoid palms. Acta Bot. Neerl.15: 226–254.Google Scholar
  80. —— 1966b. A palynological study in coccoid palms. Acta Bot. Neerl.15: 255–265.Google Scholar
  81. Radulescu, D. 1970a. Recherches morphopalynologiques sur les espèces d’Iridaceae. Lucrarile Gradinii Bot. Bucuresti1968: 311–350.Google Scholar
  82. —. 1970b. Recherches morphopalynologiques sur les espèces d’Iridaceae de la flore roumaine. Lucrarile Gradinii Bot. Bucuresti1968: 351–390.Google Scholar
  83. —. 1972. Recherches morphopalynologiques sur les espèces d’Amaryllidaceae. Lucrarile Gradinii Bot. Bucuresti1970-71: 245–273.Google Scholar
  84. —. 1973a. La morphologie du pollen chez quelques Haemodoraceae. Lucrarile Gradinii Bot. Bucuresti1972–73: 123–132.Google Scholar
  85. —. 1973b. Contributions morphopalynologiques concernant quelques Liliiflorae. Lucrarile Gradinii Bot. Bucuresti1972-73: 87–104.Google Scholar
  86. —. 1973c. Recherches morphopalynologiques sur la famille Liliaceae. Lucrarile Gradinii Bot. Bucuresti1972–73: 133–248.Google Scholar
  87. —. 1973d. Liliiflorae discussions et considérations phylogénétiques à l’ aide de quelques recherches morphopalynologiques. Lucrarile Gradinii Bot. Bucuresti1972-73: 249–283.Google Scholar
  88. Rodionenko, G. I. 1956. The pollen ofIris and a few notes on its evolution. Akad. Nauk USSR, Dokl.110: 699–702. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  89. Roland, F. 1965. Précisions sur la structure et l’ultrastructure d’une tétrade calymmée. Pollen & Spores7: 5–8.Google Scholar
  90. —. 1968. Étude de l’ultrastructure des apertures. II. Pollen à sillons. Pollen & Spores10: 479–519.Google Scholar
  91. Rowley, J. R. 1959. The fine structure of the pollen wall in the Commelinaceae. Grana Palynol.2: 3–31.Google Scholar
  92. —. 1960. The exine structure of “cereal” and “wild” type grass pollen. Grana Palynol.2: 9–15.Google Scholar
  93. —. 1962a. Nonhomogeneous sporopollenin in microspores ofPoa annua. Grana Palynol.3: 3–19.Google Scholar
  94. —. 1962b. Stranded arrangement of sporopollenin in the exine of microspores ofPoa annua. Science137: 526–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. —. 1963. Ubisch body development inPoa annua. Grana Palynol.4: 25–36.Google Scholar
  96. —. 1964. Formation of the pore in pollen ofPoa annua. Pages 59–69in H. F. Linskens. Pollen physiology and fertilization. North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  97. —. 1967. Fibrils, microtubules and lamellae in pollen grains. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.3: 218–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. —. 1975. Germinal apertural formation in pollen. Taxon24: 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. — andA. O. Dahl. 1962. The aperture of the pollen grain inCommelinanta. Pollen & Spores4: 221–232.Google Scholar
  100. — andJ. J. Skvarla. 1975. The glycocalyx and initiation of exine spinules on microspores ofCanna. Amer. J. Bot.62: 479–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schill, R. 1978. Palynologische Untersuchungen zur systematischen Stellung der Apostasiaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst.99: 353–362.Google Scholar
  102. — andW. Pfeiffer. 1977. Untersuchungen an Orchideenpollinien unter besonderer Berucksichtigung ihrer Feinskulpturen. Pollen & Spores19: 5–118.Google Scholar
  103. Schwanitz, G. 1967a. Untersuchungen zur Postmeiotischen Mikrosporogenese. I. Morphogenese desRuppia Pollens. Pollen & Spores9: 9–48.Google Scholar
  104. —. 1967b. Untersuchungen zur Postmeiotischen Mikrosporogenese. II. Vergleichende Analyse der Pollenwicklung sub- und emers Bluehender Arten. Pollen & Spores9: 183–209.Google Scholar
  105. Shpakov, A. M. andS. M. Kolesnickov. 1970. Development of pollen grains in the generaNajas andCeratophyllum. Izv. Akad. Nauk, Moldav. SSR, Biol. Khim. Nauk, Kichinev5: 73–74.Google Scholar
  106. Skvarla, J. J. andD. A. Larson. 1966. Fine structural studies ofZea mays pollen. I. Cell membranes and exine ontogeny. Amer. J. Bot.53: 1112–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. — andJ. R. Rowley. 1970. The pollen wall ofCanna and its similarity to the germinal apertures in other pollen. Amer. J. Bot.57: 519–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. de Sloover, J.-L. 1961. Note sur le pollen deLemna minor L. Pollen & Spores3: 5–10.Google Scholar
  109. Southworth, D. andD. Branton. 1971. Freeze-etched pollen walls ofArtemisia pycnoce-phala andLilium humboldtii. J. Cell Sci.9: 193–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Sowumni, M. A. 1968. Pollen morphology in the Palmae with special reference to trends in aperture development. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.7: 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. —. 1972. Pollen morphology of the Palmae and its bearing on taxonomy. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol.13: 1–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stone, D. E., S. C. Sellers andW. J. Kress. 1979 (1980). Ontogeny of exineless pollen inHeliconia, a banana relative. Annals Missouri Bot. Gard.66: 731–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. ——— 1981. Ontogenetic and evolutionary implications of a neotenous exine inTapeinochilos (Zingiberales: Costaceae). Amer. J. Bot.68: 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Takahashi, M. 1980. On the development of the reticulate structure ofHemerocallis pollen (Liliaceae). Grana Palynol.19: 3–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. —. 1982. Pollen morphology in North American species ofTrillium. Amer. J. Bot.69: 1185–1195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. — andK. Sharma. 1980. Pollen morphology of the genusDisporum Salisb. Sci. Rpt. Tohoku Univ., 4th Ser., Biol.38: 33–55.Google Scholar
  117. Thanikaimoni, G. 1965. Contribution to the pollen morphology of Eriocaulaceae. Pollen & Spores7: 181–191.Google Scholar
  118. —. 1969. Esquisse palynologique des Aracées. Trav. Sect. Sci. Techn. Inst. Franc. Pondicherry5: 1–31.Google Scholar
  119. —. 1970a. Les palmiers palynologie et systématique. Trav. Sect. Sci. Techn. Inst. Franc. Pondicherry11: 1–286.Google Scholar
  120. —. 1970b. Pollen morphology, classification and phylogeny of Palmae. Adansonia, Ser. 2.10: 347–365.Google Scholar
  121. Trevisan, L. 1980. Ultrastructural notes and considerations onEphedripites, Eucommi-idites andMonosulcites pollen grains from Lower Cretaceous sediments of southern Tuscany (Italy). Pollen & Spores22: 85–132.Google Scholar
  122. Ueno, J. 1962. On the fine structure of the pollen walls of Angiospermae. II.Victoria. J. Inst. Polytech. Osaka City Univ. Ser. D Biol.13: 99–104.Google Scholar
  123. — andS. Kitaguchi. 1961. On the fine structure of the pollen walls of Angiospermae. I. Nymphaeaceae. J. Inst. Polytech. Osaka City Univ. Ser. D. Biol.12: 83–89.Google Scholar
  124. Walker, J. W. 1974a. Evolution of exine structure in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot.61: 891–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. —. 1974b. Aperture evolution in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot.61: 1112–1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. —. 1976. Evolutionary significance of the exine in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. Pages 251–307in I. K. Ferguson and J. Muller (eds.). The evolutionary significance of the exine. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  127. Walker, J. W. andJ. A. Doyle. 1975. The basis of angiosperm phylogeny: Palynology. Annals Missouri Bot. Gard.62: 644–723.Google Scholar
  128. Williams, N. H. andC. R. Broome. 1976. Scanning electron microscope studies of orchid pollen. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull.45: 699–707.Google Scholar
  129. Yuhl, D. E. andS. K. Majumbar. 1981. Light and electron microscope studies ofHaworthia (Liliaceae) pollen. Phyton41: 203–210.Google Scholar
  130. Zavada, M., X.-L. Zu andJ. M. Edwards. 1983. On the taxonomic status ofLophiola aurea Ker-Gawler. Rhodora85: 73–81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael S. Zavada
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Sciences Group, U-43The University of Connecticut Storrs

Personalised recommendations