Economic Botany

, Volume 44, Supplement 3, pp 6–27 | Cite as

Molecular Evidence and the Evolution of Maize

  • John Doebley
Article

Abstract

In this review, the contributions of isozyme and chloroplast DNA studies to questions surrounding the evolution of maize are summarized. These methods of analysis provide generally strong support for the hierarchical system of classification of Zea proposed by Iltis and Doebley (1980). Molecular evidence is fully congruent with the theory that teosinte is ancestral to maize and suggests thatZ. mays subsp.parviglumis was the ancestral teosinte taxon. Further, these data show that only those populations from the central region of the range of subsp. parviglumis resemble maize in both isozymic and chloroplast DNA constitution. Presuming no major changes in the distribution of subsp. parviglumis since the domestication of maize, these data would place the origin of maize in the Balsas River drainage southwest of Mexico City. Molecular systematic evidence provides no support for theories that maize was domesticated independently several times; however, this type of data can not disprove such theories. Analyses of isozyme and chloroplast DNA diversity in Zea provide evidence of limited gene flow between maize and teosinte, but are not consistent with models that postulate extensive genetic interchange between these taxa. Isozyme studies have added substantially to the understanding of evolutionary relationships among extant races of maize and suggest that there are a small number of major racial complexes in Meso- and North America which have often evolved in response to environmental constraints associated with altitude. Ultimately, molecular genetic studies may allow a resolution of the controversy surrounding the morphological evolution of the maize ear.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Anderson, E., and H. C. Cutler. 1942. Races ofZea mays: I. Their recognition and classification. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 29:69–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ascherson, P. 1875. UeberEuchlaena mexicana Schrad. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 17: 76–80.Google Scholar
  3. —. 1880. Bemerkungen über ä stigen Maiskolben. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 21:133–138.Google Scholar
  4. Barrett, S. C. H. 1983. Crop mimicry in weeds. Econ. Bot. 37:255–282.Google Scholar
  5. Beadle, G. W. 1932. Studies ofEuchlaena and its hybrids withZea. I. Chromosome behavior inEuchlaena mexicana and hybrids withZea mays. Z. Indukt. Abstammungsl-Vererbungsl. 62:291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. —. 1939.Teosinte and the origin of maize. J. Heredity 30:245–247.Google Scholar
  7. —. 1972. The mystery of maize. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 43:2–11.Google Scholar
  8. —. 1980. The ancestry of corn. Sci. Amer. 242:112–119, 162.Google Scholar
  9. Benz, B. 1986. Taxonomy and evolution of Mexican maize. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, 446 p.Google Scholar
  10. Benz, B. 1987. Racial systematics and the evolution of Mexican maize. Pages 121–136in L. Manzanilla, ed., Studies in the neolithic and urban revolutions: the V. Gordon Childe Colloquium, Mexico, 1986. B.A.R. International Series 349, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  11. Bird, R. McK. 1980. Maize evolution from 500 B.C. to the present. Biotropica 12:30–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bretting, P. K., M. M. Goodman, and C. W. Stuber. 1987. Karyological and isozyme variation in West Indian and allied American mainland races of maize. Amer. J. Bot. 74:1601–1613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. -, -, and -. {dy1990}. Isozymatic variation in Guatemalan races of maize. Amer. J. Bot. (in press).Google Scholar
  14. Brown, W. L., and E. Anderson. 1947. The northern flint corns. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 34:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. —, and —. 1948. The southern dent corns. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 35:255–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, W. L., and M. M. Goodman. 1977. Races of corn. Pages 49–88in G. F. Sprague, ed., Corn and corn improvement. Amer. Soc. Agronomy, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  17. Collins, G. N. 1921. Teosinte in Mexico. J. Heredity 12:339–350.Google Scholar
  18. —. 1931. Thephylogeny of maize. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 57:199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crawford, D. J. 1983. Phylogenetic and systematic inferences from electrophoretic studies. Pages 257–287in S. D. Tanksley and T. J. Orton, eds., Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, Part A. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  20. de Wet, J. M. J., and J. R. Harlan. 1972. Origin of maize: tripartite hypothesis. Euphytica 21:271–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doebley, J. 1983a. The maize and teosinte male inflorescence: a numerical taxonomic study. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70:32–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. —. 1983b. The taxonomy and evolution ofTripsacum and teosinte, the closest relatives of maize. Pages 15–28in D. T. Gordon, J. K. Knoke, and L. R. Nault, eds., Proc. intl. maize virus disease colloquium and workshop. The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH.Google Scholar
  23. —. 1984. Maize introgression into teosinte—a reappraisal. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71:1100–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. —. 1989. Isozymic evidence and the evolution of crop plants. Pages 165–191in D. Soltis and P. Soltis, eds., Isozymes in plant biology. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  25. -. 1990. Molecular systematics ofZea (Gramineae). Maydica (in press).Google Scholar
  26. —, M. M. Goodman, and C. W. Stuber. 1983. Isozyme variation in maize from the southwestern United States: taxonomic and anthropological implications. Maydica 28:94–120.Google Scholar
  27. —, —, and —. 1984. Isoenzymatic variation inZea (Gramineae). Syst. Bot. 9:203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. —,—, and —. 1985. Isozyme variation in the races of maize from Mexico. Amer. J.Bot. 72:629–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. —,—, and —. 1986. Exceptional genetic divergence of Northern Flint Corn. Amer. J.Bot. 73:64–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. —, — and —. 1987a. Patterns of isozyme variation between maize and Mexican annual teosinte. Econ. Bot. 41:234–246.Google Scholar
  31. —, and H. H. Iltis. 1980. Taxonomy ofZea (Gramineae). I. A subgeneric classification with key to taxa. Amer. J. Bot. 67:982–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. —, W. Renfroe, and A. Blanton. 1987b. Restriction site variation in theZea chloroplast genome.Genetics 117:139–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. —, and P. Sisco. 1989. On the origin of the maize male sterile cytoplasms: it’s completely unimportant, that's why it's so interesting. Maize Genetics Corporation Newsletter 63:108–109.Google Scholar
  34. —, J. F. Wendel, J. S. C. Smith, C. W. Stuber, and M. M. Goodman. 1988. The origin of cornbelt maize: the isozyme evidence. Econ. Bot. 42:120–131.Google Scholar
  35. Galinat, W. C. 1973. Preserve Guatemalan teosinte, a relict link in corn’s evolution. Science 180: 323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. —. 1983. The origin of maize as shown by key morphological traits of its ancestor, teosinte. Maydica 28:121–138.Google Scholar
  37. —. 1985. The missing links between teosinte and maize: a review. Maydica 30:137–160.Google Scholar
  38. —, and R. G. Campbell. 1967. The diffusion of eight rowed maize from the Southwest to the Central Plains. Mass. Agric. Exp. Sta. Monogr. Ser. 1:1–16.Google Scholar
  39. —, and J. H. Gunnerson. 1963. Spread of eight-rowed maize from the prehistoric Southwest. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 20:117–160.Google Scholar
  40. Goodman, M. M., and C. W. Stuber. 1983a. Maize. Pages 1–33in S. D. Tanksley and T. J. Orton, eds., Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, Part B. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  41. —, and —. 1983b. Races of maize. VI. Isozyme variation among races of maize in Bolivia.Maydica 28:169–187.Google Scholar
  42. Guzmán, R. 1978. Una nueva localidad para el teosinteZea perennis y primer reporte deZea mexicana para Jalisco. Bol. Inform. Inst. Bot., Univ. de Guadalajara 6:9–10.Google Scholar
  43. —. 1982. El teosinte en Jalisco: su distribución y ecología. Ingeniera Agronomo Tesis, Escuela de Agriculture, Univ. de Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.Google Scholar
  44. Harshberger, J. W. 1896. Fertile crosses of teosinte and maize. Gard. & Forest 9:522–523.Google Scholar
  45. Heiser, C. 1973. Introgression re-examined. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 39:347–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hitchcock, A. S. 1922. A perennial species of teosinte. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 12:205–208.Google Scholar
  47. Iltis, H. H. 1983. From teosinte to maize: the catastrophic sexual transmutation. Science 222:886–894.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Iltis, H. H.. 1987. Maize evolution and agricultural origins. Pages 195-213in T. Soderstrom, K. Hilu,C. Campbell, and M. Barkworth, eds., Grass systematics and evolution. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  49. —, and J. F. Doebley. 1980. Taxonomy of Zea (Gramineae). II. Subspecific categories in theZea mays complex and a generic synopsis. Amer. J. Bot. 67:994–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. —, and —. 1984.Zea—a biosystematical Odyssey. Pages 587–616in W. F. Grant, ed., Plant biosystematics. Academic Press, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  51. —,—, R. Guzman, and B. Pazy. 1979.Zea diploperennis (Gramineae): a new teosinte from Mexico. Science 203:186–188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. —, D. A. Kolterman, and B. Benz. 1986. Accurate documentation of germplasm: the lost Guatemalan teosintes (Zea, Gramineae). Econ. Bot. 40:69–77.Google Scholar
  53. Kato, T. A. 1976. Cytological studies of maize. Mass. Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. No. 635.Google Scholar
  54. — 1984. Chromosome morphology and the origin of maize and its races. Evol. Biol. 17:219–253.Google Scholar
  55. Ladizinsky, G. 1985. Founder effect in crop plant evolution. Econ. Bot. 39:191–199.Google Scholar
  56. Mangelsdorf, P. C. 1974. Corn: its origin, evolution and improvement. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  57. —. 1983. The mystery of corn: new perspectives. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 127:215–247.Google Scholar
  58. —. 1986. The origin of corn. Sci. Amer. 254:80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. —, and W. C. Galinat. 1964. The tunicate locus in maize dissected and reconstituted. Proc.Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 51:147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. -, and R. G. Reeves. 1939. The origin of Indian corn and its relatives. Texas Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 574.Google Scholar
  61. McClintock, B. 1959. Chromosome constitutions of Mexican and Guatemalan races of maize. Annual Rep. Dept. Genet. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 59:461–472.Google Scholar
  62. -, T. A. Kato Y., and A. Blumenschein. 1981. Chromosome constitution of races of maize. Colegio de Postgraduados, Chapingo, Mexico.Google Scholar
  63. Montgomery, E. G. 1906. What is an ear of corn? Popular Sci. Monthly 68:55–62.Google Scholar
  64. —. 1913. The corn crops. MacMillan, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Nei, M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. Amer. Naturalist 106:283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Randolph, L. F. 1959. The origin of maize. Indian J. Genet. PL Breed. 19:1–12.Google Scholar
  67. Reeves, R. G., and P. C. Mangelsdorf. 1942. A proposed taxonomic change in the tribe Maydeae (family Gramineae). Amer. J. Bot. 29:815–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rick, C, R. W. Zobel, and J. F. Fobes. 1974. Four peroxidase loci in red-fruited tomato species: genetics and geographic distribution. Proc. Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 71:835–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Saint-Hilaire, A. de. 1829. Lettre sur une variété remarquable de maïs du Brésil. Ann. Sci. Nat.(Paris) 16:143–145.Google Scholar
  70. Sanchez G., J., and L. Ordaz S. 1987. El teosinte en México: distribución actual de las poblaciones. International Board for Plant Genetics Resources, Systematic and Ecogeographic Studies on Crop Genepools No. 2.Google Scholar
  71. Schrader, H. 1833. In Litteratur. Linnaea (Berlin) 1833:25–26.Google Scholar
  72. Smith, J. S. C., M. M. Goodman, and C. W. Stuber. 1984. Variation within teosinte. III. Numerical analysis of allozyme data. Econ. Bot. 38:97–113.Google Scholar
  73. —, —, and —. 1985. Relationships between maize and teosinte of Mexico and Guatemala:numerical analysis of allozyme data. Econ. Bot. 39:12–24.Google Scholar
  74. Stuber, C. W., and M. M. Goodman. 1983. Allozyme genotypes for popular and historically important inbred lines of corn,Zea mays L. USDA Agric. Res. Results, Southern Series 16, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  75. Sturtevant, E. L. 1899. Varieties of corn. U.S.D.A. Off. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 57.Google Scholar
  76. Sundberg, M. D. 1987. Development of the mixed inflorescences inZea diploperennis Iltis, Doebley and Guzman (Poaceae). J. Linn. Soc, Bot. 95:207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. —, and A. R. Orr. 1986. Early inflorescence and floral development inZea diploperennis, diploperennial teosinte. Amer. J. Bot. 73:1699–1712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Timothy, D. H., C. S. Levings, D. R. Pring, M. F. Conde, and J. L. Kermicle. 1979. Organelle DNA variation and systematic relationships in the genusZea: teosinte. Proc. Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 76:4220–4224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. von Post, T., and O. Kuntze. 1904. Lexicon generum phanerogamarum. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  80. Wallace, H. A., and W. L. Brown. 1956. Corn and its early fathers. Michigan State Univ. Press, East Lansing, MI.Google Scholar
  81. Weatherwax, P. 1935. The phytogeny ofZea mays. Amer. Midi. Naturalist 16:1–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Weissinger, A. K., D. H. Timothy, C. S. Levings III, and M. M. Goodman. 1983. Patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation in indigenous maize races of Latin America. Genetics 104:365–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Wellhausen, E. J., A. Fuentes O., and A. Hernández C. (in collaboration with P. C. Mangelsdorf). 1957. Races of maize in Central America. Natl. Res. Council Publ. 511.Google Scholar
  84. —, L. M. Roberts, and E. Hernández X. (in collaboration with P. C. Mangelsdorf). 1952. Races of maize in Mexico. Bussey Inst, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  85. Wilkes, H. G. 1967. Teosinte: the closest relative of maize. Bussey Inst., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  86. —. 1970. Teosinte introgression in the maize of the Nobogame valley. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 22:297–311.Google Scholar
  87. —. 1977. Hybridization of maize and teosinte in Mexico and Guatemala and the improvement of maize. Econ. Bot. 31:254–293.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Doebley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of MinnesotaSt. Paul

Personalised recommendations