Economic Botany

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 143–163 | Cite as

Ethnobotany of the genusCyphomandra (Solanaceae)

  • Lynn Bohs


Plants of the genusCyphomandra (Solanaceae) have long been utilized for their edible fruits in their native Latin America. The best-known species is the domesticated tree tomato or tamarillo,Cyphomandra betacea. This species, popular as a raw or cooked fruit, is widely cultivated in Andean South America and is now dispersed worldwide in subtropical areas. Its origin and wild relatives are still unknown, but there are tentative reports of wild populations ofC. betacea in southern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina. Wild species ofCyphomandra such asC. hartwegii, C. sibundoyensis, andC. cajanumensis also produce edible fruits. Other species ofCyphomandra are used in medicinal preparations and as dyes. This group of plants is of increasing economic importance and may have considerable potential for future exploitation.


Alkaloid Economic Botany Peru Colombia Ecuador 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Aiton, W. T. 1810. Hortus Kewensis. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown, London.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, P. H. 1956. The rain forests of Golfo Dulce. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, FL.Google Scholar
  3. Alliaume. 1880.Solanum betaceum. Rev. Hort. 52:150–151.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, H. 1801.Solanum betaceum. Bot. Repos. 8: tab. 511.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous. 1887. Tree tomato. Bull. Misc. Inform. 8:2–6.Google Scholar
  6. -. 1922. U.S.D.A. inventory of seeds and plants imported Jan. 1 to Mar. 31, 1917. Inventory #50. USDA, Bur. Plant Industry, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  7. Aublet, M. F. 1775. Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Francoise. Vol. 1. Didot, Paris.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, L. H., and E. Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus third. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bitter, G. 1921. Additamenta ad genus Cyphomandram. I. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 17:346–355.Google Scholar
  10. Bohs, L. 1986. The biology and taxonomy ofCyphomandra (Solanaceae).Ph.D. thesis, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  11. —. 1988a. Four new species ofCyphomandra (Solanaceae) from South America. Syst. Bot. 13: 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. -. 1988b. The Colombian species ofCyphomandra. Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. (In press).Google Scholar
  13. Boom, B. 1987. Ethnobotany of the Chácobo Indians, Beni, Bolivia. Acvances Econ. Bot. 4:1–68.Google Scholar
  14. Brücher, H. 1977. Tropische Nutzpflanzen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  15. Burkill, I. H. 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay peninsula. 2nd ed. Govts. of Malaysia and Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Google Scholar
  16. Capps, H. W. 1948. Status of the pyraustid moths of the genusLeucinodes in the New World. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 98:69–84.Google Scholar
  17. Cárdenas, M. 1969. Manual de plantas económicas de Bolivia. Imprenta Icthus, Cochabamba, Bolivia.Google Scholar
  18. Cavanilles, A. J. 1799. Descripción de cinco generos nuevos y de otras plantas. Anales Hist. Nat. 1:33–45.Google Scholar
  19. Chamberlain, E. E. 1948. Virus diseases of the tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea Sendt.) I. Cucumber-mosaic. New Zealand J. Sci. Technol. 29:256–260.Google Scholar
  20. Child, A. 1986. Taxonomic studies inSolanum L. (and related genera) 4.Cyphomandra casana Child sp. nov. andSolanum sect.Glaucophyllum Child sect. nov. Feddes Repert. 97:143–146.Google Scholar
  21. Choucair, K. 1961. Fruticultura Colombiana. Vol. 2. Editorial Bedout, Medellín, Colombia.Google Scholar
  22. Cook, O. F., and G. N. Collins. 1903. Economic plants of Porto Rico. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 8: 57–269.Google Scholar
  23. Corrêa, M. P. 1975. Dicionario das plantas úteis do Brasil. Vol. 6. Ministerio da Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  24. D’Arcy, W. D. 1986. Comparative chemistry. Pages 177–178in W. G. D’Arcy, ed., Solanaceae: biology and systematics. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Dawes, S. N., and M. E. Callaghan. 1970. Composition of New Zealand fruit. I. Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt.) New Zealand J. Sci. (Wellington) 13:447–451.Google Scholar
  26. Dunal, M. F. 1813. Histoire naturelle, médicale, et économique desSolanum et des genres qui ont été confundus avec eux. A. Koenig, Paris.Google Scholar
  27. -. 1814. Morelle. Pages 738–780in J. L. M. Poiret, Encycl. Suppl. 3.Google Scholar
  28. —. 1816. Solanorum generumque affinium synopsis. 2nd ed. Renaud, Montpellier.Google Scholar
  29. Evans, W. C., A. Ghani, and V. A. Woolley. 1972. Alkaloids ofCyphomandra betacea Sendt. Journ. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1:2017–2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans, W. C., —, and A. Somanabandhu. 1980. Nitrogen-containing non-steroidal metabolites ofSolanum, Cyphomandra, Lycianthes, andMargaranthus. Phytochemistry 19:2351–2356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisch, M. B. 1974. The tree tomato. Pages 269–309in Calif. Rare Fruit Growers Yearbook 1974.Google Scholar
  32. Fletcher, W. A. 1979. Growing tamarillos. New Zealand Minist. Agric. & Fish. Bull. 307:1–27.Google Scholar
  33. Gallego-M., F. L. 1960. Gusano del tomate de árbol. Revista Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellín Univ. Antioquia 20 (54):39–43.Google Scholar
  34. Gentry, J. L., and P. C. Standley. 1974. Solanaceaein Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana, Bot. 24:1–151.Google Scholar
  35. Hammer, K. 1986. DistinguishingDatura ferox andD. quercifolia by means of chemotaxonomy. Solanaceae Newslett. 2 (4): 50.Google Scholar
  36. Hedrick, U. P., ed. 1919. Sturtevant's notes on edible plants. J. B. Lyon Co., Albany, NY.Google Scholar
  37. Heiser, C. B., Jr. 1969. Nightshades: the paradoxical plants. W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  38. Hiern, W. P. 1898. Catalogue of the African plants collected by Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853–61. Part 3. Longman’s and Co., London.Google Scholar
  39. Hoehne, F. C. 1946. Frutas indígenas. Instituto de Botánica, São Paulo, Brasil.Google Scholar
  40. Holmes, F. O. 1946. A comparison of the experimental host ranges of tobacco-etch and tobacco-mosaic viruses. Phytopathology 36:643–659.Google Scholar
  41. Hooker, J. D. 1899.Cyphomandra betacea. Bot. Mag. III 60:Tab. 7682.Google Scholar
  42. Hume, E. P., and H. F. Winters. 1948. Tomatoes from a tree. Foreign Agric. 12:121–122.Google Scholar
  43. —, and —. 1949. The “palo de tomate” or tree tomato. Econ. Bot. 3:140–142.Google Scholar
  44. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR). 1986. Genetic resources of tropical and sub-tropical fruits and nuts (excludingMusa). IBPGR, Rome.Google Scholar
  45. Lowe, R. T. 1867. XXXIII. Some account of the fruits and vegetables of Madeira, the Canaries, and Cape Verdes. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 1(4): 161–187.Google Scholar
  46. Lu, A.-M. 1986. Solanaceae in China. Pages 79–85in W. G. D’Arcy, ed., Solanaceae: biology and systematics. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Lunan, J. 1814. Hortus Jamaicensis. Vol. 2. St. Jago de la Vega Gazette, Jamaica.Google Scholar
  48. Macbride, J. F. 1962. Solanaceaein Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(5B):1–267.Google Scholar
  49. Maiden, J. H. 1894. The tree tomato(Cy. betacea Sendtn.) Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 5(4):214–217.Google Scholar
  50. Miers, J. 1845. Contributions to the botany of South America. London J. Bot. 4:319–371.Google Scholar
  51. Morris, D. 1884. Tree tomato. Gard. Chron., n. s. 21:510.Google Scholar
  52. —. 1887. The tree tomato. Gard. Chron. III. 1:386.Google Scholar
  53. Morton, J. F. 1982. The tree tomato, or “tamarillo,” a fast-growing, early-fruiting small tree for subtropical climates. Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 95:81–85.Google Scholar
  54. Mossop, D. W. 1977. Isolation, purification, and properties of tamarillo mosaic virus, a member of the potato virus Y group. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 20:535–541.Google Scholar
  55. Nee, M. 1979. Patterns in biogeography inSolanum sectionAcanthophora. Pages 569–580in J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, and A. D. Skelding, eds., The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  56. Ochse, J. J., M. J. Soule, M. J. Dijkman, and C. Wehlberg. 1961. Tropical and subtropical agriculture. Vol. I. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Patiño, V. M. 1963. Plantas cultivadas y animales domésticos en América equinoccial. Vol. 1. Imprenta Departamental, Cali, Colombia.Google Scholar
  58. Pittier, H. 1908. Plantas usuales de Costa Rica. H. L. and J. B. McQueen, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  59. —. 1910. Two new species ofCyphomandra from Colombia. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 13:116–117.Google Scholar
  60. —. 1926. Manual de las plantas usuales de Venezuela. Litografía del Comercio, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  61. —. 1947. Solanaceae. Pages 347–382in H. Pittier, L. Lasser, L. Schnee, Z. Lucas de Febres, and V. Badillo, eds., Catalogo de la flora venezolana. Vol. 2. Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  62. Popenoe, W. 1924. Economic fruit-bearing plants of Ecuador. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 24:101–134.Google Scholar
  63. Portilla, A. 1951. Plantas utiles de Colombia. Editorial Luz, Pasto, Colombia.Google Scholar
  64. Powell, D. 1972. The botanic garden, Liguanea. Bull. Inst. Jamaica, Sci. ser. 15(1).Google Scholar
  65. Procter, C. H. 1975. Studies on tomato aspermy virus fromChrysanthemum indicum L. in New Zealand. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 18:387–390.Google Scholar
  66. Raffauf, R. F. 1970. A handbook of alkaloids and alkaloid-containing plants. Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Roddick, J. G. 1986. Steroidal alkaloids of the Solanaceae. Pages 201–222in W. G. D’Arcy, ed., Solanaceae: biology and systematics. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Roig y Mesa, J. T. 1953. Diccionario botánico de nombres vulgares Cubano. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Seoane, Fernandez y Cia., Havana.Google Scholar
  69. Romero-Castañeda, R. 1961. Frutas silvestres de Colombia. Vol. 1. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.Google Scholar
  70. —. 1969. Frutas silvestres de Colombia. Vol. 2. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia.Google Scholar
  71. Safford, W. E. 1917. Food plants and textiles of ancient America. Pages 12–30in Proc. 19th Intl. Congress of Americanists, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  72. Schreiber, K. 1979. The steroid alkaloids ofSolanum. Pages 193–202in J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, and A. D. Skelding, eds., The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  73. Schultes, R. E. 1978. De plantis toxicariis e mundo novo tropicale commentationes XXIII. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 26:177–197.Google Scholar
  74. Singh, S., S. Krishnamurthi, and S. L. Katyal. 1967. Fruit culture in India. 2nd ed. Indian Council of Agric. Research, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  75. Smith, L. B., and R. J. Downs. 1966. Solanaceae. Pages 1–321in P. R. Reitz, ed., Flora Illustrada Catarinense. Itajaí, Brazil.Google Scholar
  76. Standley, P. and V. Morton. 1938. Solanaceaein Flora of Costa Rica. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 18(3):1035–1099.Google Scholar
  77. Sutton, H. C., and G. Strachan. 1971. An attempt to controlBotrytis rot in tamarillos by electron irradiation. New Zealand J. Sci. (Wellington) 14:1097–1106.Google Scholar
  78. Thomas, W., and C. H. Procter. 1972. Arabis mosaic virus inCyphomandra betacea Sendt. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 15:395–404.Google Scholar
  79. —, and —. 1977. Further studies in arabis mosaic virus inCyphomandra betacea Sendt. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 20:543–546.Google Scholar
  80. Towle, M. A. 1961. The ethnobotany of precolumbian Peru. Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  81. Uphof, J. C. T. 1968. Dictionary of economic plants. J. Cramer, Lehre, West Germany.Google Scholar
  82. Usher, G. 1974. A dictionary of plants used by man. Hafner Press, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Vickers, W. E., and T. Plowman. 1984. Useful plants of the Siona and Secoya Indians of eastern Ecuador. Fieldiana, Bot., n. s. 15:1–63.Google Scholar
  84. Warburg, O. 1903. Kunene-Sambesi Expedition. Kolonial-Wirtschaftlichen Komitees, Berlin.Google Scholar
  85. Wester, P. J. 1925. The food plants of the Philippines. 3rd ed. Philipp. Dept. Agr. Nat. Resources Bull. vn39. Manila.Google Scholar
  86. Whalen, M. D., and G. J. Anderson. 1981. Distribution of gametophytic self-incompatibility and infrageneric classification inSolanum.Taxon 30:761–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Willdenow, C. L. 1809. Enumeratio plantarum horti regii botanici Berolinensis. Part 1. Taberna Libraria Scholae Realis, Berlin.Google Scholar
  88. Yacovleff, E., and F. L. Herrera. 1934. El mundo vegetal de los antiguos Peruanos. Revista Mus. Nac. 3:241–322.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynn Bohs
    • 1
  1. 1.Pringle Herbarium, Marsh Life Science BuildingUniversity of VermontBurlington

Personalised recommendations