Advertisement

Economic Botany

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 86–96 | Cite as

In situ conservation of crop genetic resources through maintenance of traditional farming systems

  • Miguel A. Altieri
  • Laura Merrick
Article

Abstract

A strategy is suggested for in situ conservation of crop genetic resources whereby conservation efforts are linked to rural development projects in Third World countries. We describe development projects that emphasize preservation of traditional farming systems and succeed in sustaining production by relying on the maintenance of biological and genetic diversity in these systems. Basing agricultural development efforts on indigenous knowledge, technology, and social organization can provide important guidelines for the design of cropping systems that allow lowincome farmers to produce subsistence and cash crops without dependence on external inputs and seed supplies. By incorporating landraces and wild relatives of crops into these cropping systems, major achievements in the conservation of crop genetic resources can be obtained.

Keywords

Genetic Resource Economic Botany Wild Relative Jojoba Plant Genetic Resource 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Adams, M. W., A. H. Ellingbae, and E. C. Rossineau. 1971 Biological uniformity and disease epidemics. Bioscience 21:1067–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcorn, J. B. 1981 Huastec noncrop resource management. Human Ecol. 9:395–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. — 1984 Development policy, forests and peasant farms: reflections on Huastec-managed forests’ contributions to commercial production and resource conservation. Econ. Bot. 38:389–406.Google Scholar
  4. Altieri, M. A. 1983 Agroecology: The scientific basis of alternative agriculture. Div. Biol. Control, Univ. Calif., Berkeley.Google Scholar
  5. — 1985 Developing pest management strategies for small farmers based on traditional knowledge. Bull. Inst. Developm. Anthropol. 3:13–18.Google Scholar
  6. —, A. van Schoonhoven, and J. D. Doll. 1977 The ecological role of weeds in insect pest management systems: a review illustrated with bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cropping systems. Pest Articles News and Summ. (PANS) 23:195–205.Google Scholar
  7. Augstburger, F. 1983 Agronomic and economic potential of manure in Bolivian valleys and highlands. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 10:335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker, H. G. 1965 Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds.In H. G. Baker and G. L. Stebbins, eds., The genetics of colonizing species, p. 147–168. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Barlett, P. F. 1980 Adaptation strategies in peasant agricultural production. Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 9:545–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrett, S. C. H. 1983 Crop mimicry in weeds. Econ. Bot. 37:255–282.Google Scholar
  11. Bennett, E. 1968 Record of the FAO/IBP technical conference on the exploration, utilization and conservation of plant genetic resources, p. 32, 61. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, W. L. 1983 Genetic diversity and genetic vulnerability—an appraisal. Econ. Bot. 37:4–12.Google Scholar
  13. Browning, J. A. 1974 Relevance of knowledge about natural ecosystems to development of pest management programs for agro-ecosystems. Proc. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. 1:191–194.Google Scholar
  14. —, and K. J. Frey. 1969 Multiline cultivars as a means of disease control. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 7:355–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brush, S. B. 1982 The natural and human environment of the central Andes. Mountain Res. Developm. 2:14–38.Google Scholar
  16. Chacon, J. C, and S. R. Gliessman. 1982 Use of the “non-weed” concept in traditional tropical agroecosystems of south-eastern Mexico. Agro-Ecosystems 8:1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang, J. H. 1977 Tropical agriculture: crop diversity and crop yields. Econ. Geogr. 53:241–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christanty, L., O. Abdoellah, and J. Iskander. 1986 Traditional agroforestry in West Java: the pekarangan (homegarden) and talun-kebun (shifting cultivation) cropping systems.In G. Marten, ed., The human ecology of traditional tropical agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  19. Clawson, D. L. 1985 Harvest security and intraspecific diversity in traditional tropical agriculture. Econ. Bot. 39:56–67.Google Scholar
  20. Datta, S. C, and A. K. Banerjee. 1978 Useful weeds of West Bengal rice fields. Econ. Bot. 32:297–310.Google Scholar
  21. Davis, T., IV and R. A. Bye, Jr. 1982 Ethnobotany and progressive domestication ofJaltomata Solanaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Econ. Bot. 36:225–241.Google Scholar
  22. de Janvry, A. 1981 The agrarian question and reformism in Latin America. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  23. de Wet, J. M. J., and J. R. Harlan. 1975 Weeds and domesticates: evolution in the man-made habitat. Econ. Bot. 29:99–107.Google Scholar
  24. Doggett, H., and B. N. Majisu. 1968 Disruptive selection in crop development. Heredity 23:1–23.Google Scholar
  25. Egger, K. 1981 Ecofarming in the tropics—characteristics and potentialities. PI. Res. Developm. 13:96–106.Google Scholar
  26. Ewell, P. T., and T. T. Poleman. 1982 Uxpanapa: resettlement and agricultural development in the Mexican tropics. Int. Agric. Econ. Stud. 82–7, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  27. Francis, C. A. 1985 Variety development for multiple cropping systems. CRC Crit. Rev. PI. Sci. 3: 133–168.Google Scholar
  28. Frankel, O.H., ed. 1973 Survey of crop genetic resources in their centres of diversity (first report). FAO/IBP, Rome.Google Scholar
  29. -, and E. Bennett, eds., 1970 Genetic resources in plants—their exploration and conservation. International Biological Programme Handbook 11. Blackwell, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  30. —, and J. G. Hawkes, eds., 1975 Crop genetic resources for today and tomorrow. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  31. —, and M. E. Soulé. 1981 Conservation and evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  32. Gliessman, S. R., R. García E., and M. Amador A. 1981 The ecological basis for the application of traditional agricultural technology in the management of tropical agro-ecosystems. Agro-Ecosystems 7:173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grossman, L. S. 1984 Peasants, subsistence ecology and development in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  34. Harlan, J. R. 1965 The possible role of weed races in the evolution of cultivated plants. Euphytica 14:173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. — 1975. Our vanishing genetic resources. Science 188:618–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. -, Crops and man. Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  37. — 1976 Genetic resources in wild relatives of crops. Crop Sci. 16:329–333.Google Scholar
  38. Harwood, R. R. 1979 Small farm development—understanding and improving farming systems in the humid tropics. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  39. Hernández X., E. 1985 Biología agrícola. CECSA, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.Google Scholar
  40. Hirschman, A. O. 1984 Getting ahead collectively: grassroots experiences in Latin America. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Iltis, H. H. 1974 Freezing the genetic landscape—the preservation of diversity in cultivated plants as an urgent social responsibility of the plant geneticist and plant taxonomist. Maize Genet. Coop. Newslett. 48:199–200.Google Scholar
  42. Ingram, G. B., and J. T. Williams. 1984In situ conservation of wild relatives of crops.In J. H. W. Holden and J. T. Williams, eds., Crop genetic resources: conservation and evaluation, p. 163–178. Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  43. King, F. H. 1927 Farmers of forty centuries. Cape, London.Google Scholar
  44. Merrick, L. C., and G. P. Nabhan. 1984 Natural hybridization of wildCucurbita sororia group and domesticated C.mixta in southern Sonora, Mexico. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Newslett. 7:73–75.Google Scholar
  45. Mooney, P. R. 1983 The law of the seed. Developm. Dialogue 1:1–172.Google Scholar
  46. Morales, H. L. 1984 Chinampas and integrated farms: learning from the rural traditional experience.In F. de Castri, F. W. G. Baker, and M. Hadley, eds., Ecology in practice. Vol. 1. Ecosystem management, p. 188–195. Tycooly, Dublin.Google Scholar
  47. Nabhan, G. P. 1979 Cultivation and culture. Ecologist 9:259–263.Google Scholar
  48. — 1983 Papago Indian fields: arid lands ethnobotany and agricultural ecology. Unpubl. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  49. — 1984. Replenishing desert agriculture with native plants and their symbionts.In W. Jackson, W. Berry, and B. Colman, eds., Meeting the expectations of the land, p. 172–182. North Point Press, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  50. — 1984. Evidence of gene flow between cultivatedCucúrbita mixta and a field edge population of wildCucúrbita at Onavas, Sonora. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Newslett. 7:76–77.Google Scholar
  51. — 1985. Gathering the desert. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  52. — 1985. Native crop diversity in Aridoamerica: conservation of regional gene pools. Econ. Bot. 39:387–399.Google Scholar
  53. iaNational Academy of Sciences. 1972 Genetic vulnerability of major crops. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  54. Oka, H. I., and W. T. Chang. 1961 Hybrid swarms between wild and cultivated rice speciesOryza perennis andO. sativa. Evolution 15:418–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Oldfield, M. L. 1984 The value of conserving genetic resources. Dept. Interior, U.S. Govt. Print. Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Plucknett, D. L., N. J. H. Smith, J. T. Williams, and N. M. Anishetty. 1983 Crop germplasm conservation and developing countries. Science 220:163–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prescott-Allen, R., and C. Prescott-Allen. 1981In situ conservation of crop genetic resources: a report to the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. IBPGR, Rome.Google Scholar
  58. — 1982 The case forin situ conservation of crop genetic resources. Nat. and Resources 23:15–20.Google Scholar
  59. -, and C. Prescott-Allen 1983 Genes from the wild. Earthscan Paperback, London.Google Scholar
  60. Rick, C. M. 1958 The role of natural hybridization in the derivation of cultivated tomatoes of western South America. Econ. Bot. 12:346–367.Google Scholar
  61. — 1973 Potential genetic resources in tomato species: clues from observations in native habitats.In A. M. Srb, ed., Genes, enzymes and populations, p. 255–269. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Rural Advancement Fund International. 1985 International Genetic Resources Programme report No. 5. RAFI, Pittsboro, NC.Google Scholar
  63. Rural Advancement Fund International1986 The community seed bank kit. RAFI, Pittsboro, NC.Google Scholar
  64. Sarukhán, J. 1985 Ecological and social overviews of ethnobotanical research. Econ. Bot. 39:431–435.Google Scholar
  65. Segal, A., J. Manisterski, G. Fischbeck, and I. Wahl. 1980 How plant populations defend themselves in natural ecosystems.In J. G. Horsfall and E. B. Cowling, eds., Plant disease: an advanced treatise, p. 75–102. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  66. Simmonds, N. W. 1962 Variability in crop plants, its use and conservation. Biol. Rev. 37:422–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith, P. M. 1976 Minor crops.In N. W. Simmonds, ed., Evolution of crop plants, p. 312–313. Longman, London.Google Scholar
  68. Vavilov, N. I. 1951 Phytogeographic basis of plant breeding.In The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants, p. 13–54. Chron. Bot. 13:1-366.Google Scholar
  69. Wiersum, K. F., ed. 1981 Viewpoints on agroforestry. Agricultural Univ., Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  70. Wilken, G. C. 1977 Integrating forest and small-scale farm systems in middle America. Agro-Ecosystems 3:291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilkes, H. G. 1977 Hybridization of maize and teosinte, in Mexico and Guatemala and the improvement of maize. Econ. Bot. 31:254–293.Google Scholar
  72. — 1983 Current status of crop plant germplasm. CRC Crit. Rev. PL Sci. 1:133–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. —, and S. K. Wilkes. 1972 The green revolution. Environment 14:32–39.Google Scholar
  74. Wilson, H. D., and C. B. Heiser. 1979 The origin and evolutionary relationships of “Huauzontle” (Chenopodium nuttalliae Safford), domesticated chenopod of Mexico. Amer. J. Bot. 66:198–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zohary, D., and M. Feldman. 1962 Hybridization between amphidiploids and the evolution of polyploids in the wheat (Aegilops-Triticum) group. Evolution 16:44–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel A. Altieri
    • 1
  • Laura Merrick
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Biological ControlUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeley
  2. 2.L. H. Bailey HortoriumCornell UniversityIthaca
  3. 3.Department of Vegetable CropsUniversity of CaliforniaDavis

Personalised recommendations