Economic Botany

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 342–349 | Cite as

Kawal, meat substitute from fermentedCassia obtusifolia leaves

  • Hamid A. Dirar


The green leaves ofCassia obtusifolia are fermented to produce a food product, kawal, used by certain tribes of Sudan as a meat substitute. Following fermentation for 2 wk the product is sundried and used when needed. Protein content of kawal is about 20% on dry matter basis. Two microorganisms are most commonly recovered from fermenting as well as dried kawal: the bacteriumBacillus subtilis and a species of the fungusRhizopus. Other uses of the plant are discussed.


Fermentation Sorghum Economic Botany Sudan Meat Substitute 
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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid A. Dirar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of KhartoumKhartoumSudam

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