The Botanical Review

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 226–262 | Cite as

Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)

  • James O. Klemmedson
  • Justin G. Smith


Botanical Review Perennial Species Annual Grass Perennial Grass Heavy Grazing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Beddows, A. R. 1931. Seed setting and flowering in various grasses. Welsh Plant Breed. Sta. [Aberystwyth] Bull. (Ser. H)21: 5–99.Google Scholar
  2. Bentley, J. R., andR. L. Fenner. 1958. Soil temperatures during burning related to postfire seedbeds on woodland range. Jour. Forestry56: 737–740.Google Scholar
  3. Billings, W. D. 1949. The shadscale vegetation zone of Nevada and eastern California in relation to climate and soils. Amer. Mid. Nat.42: 87–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. —. 1951. Vegetational zonation in the Great Basin.In: “Les bases écologiques de la régénération de la végétation des zones arides.” U.I.S.B. [Paris] pp. 101–122.Google Scholar
  5. —. 1952. The environmental complex in relation to plant growth and distribution. Quart. Rev. Biol.27: 251–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blouch, R. M. 1953. Annual grass weeds succumb to chemical control methods. Crops and Soils6: 9, 24.Google Scholar
  7. Bohmont, D. W. 1953. Weeds of Wyoming. Wyo. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 325.Google Scholar
  8. Bovey, R. W., D. LeTourneau, andL. C. Erickson. 1961. The chemical composition of medusahead and downy brome. Weeds9: 307–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruns, V. G., W. W. Heineman, andD. L. Oldemeyer. 1959. Control of downy brome in alfalfa and related studies. U.S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bull. 1197.Google Scholar
  10. California Forest and Range Experiment Station. 1954. Annual report forest research in California. U.S. Forest Serv.Google Scholar
  11. Clarke, S. E., J. A. Campbell, andW. Shevkenek. 1950. The identification of certain native and naturalized grasses by their vegetative characters. Canada Dept. Agr., Pub. 762, Tech. Bull. 50.Google Scholar
  12. Clinton, G. D. 1906. Ustilaginales. No. Amer. Flora7: 1–82.Google Scholar
  13. Committee on Feed Composition of the Agricultural Board, National Academy of Sciences—National Research Council. 1958. Composition of cereal grains and forages. [Prepared by Donald F. Miller, Tech. Sec., N.R.C., National Research Council Pub. 585, Washington, D. C.] 663 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Cook, C. W., andL. E. Harris. 1952. Nutritive value of cheatgrass and crested wheatgrass on spring ranges of Utah. Jour. Range Mangt.5: 331–337.Google Scholar
  15. Costello, D. F. 1944. Important species of the major forage types in Colorado and Wyoming. Ecol. Monog.14: 107–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. -, andH. E. Schwan. 1946. Conditions and trends on ponderosa pine ranges in Colorado. U.S. Forest Serv.Google Scholar
  17. Cottam, W. P., andF. R. Evans. 1945. A comparative study of the vegetation of the grazed and ungrazed canyons of the Wasatch Range, Utah. Ecology26: 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Craddock, G. W., andC. K. Pearse. 1938. Surface run-off and erosion on granitic mountain soils of Idaho as influenced by range cover, soil disturbance, slope and precipitation intensity. U.S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 482.Google Scholar
  19. Daubenmire, R. 1940. Plant succession due to overgrazing in theAgropyron bunchgrass prairie of southeastern Washington. Ecology21: 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. —. 1942. An ecological study of the vegetation of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho. Ecol. Monog.12: 53–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. —. 1952. Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent Washington, and its bearing on concepts of vegetation classification. Ecol. Monog.22: 301–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis, R. J. 1952. Flora of Idaho. 828 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Dow Chemical Co. 1953. Dalapon. Dow Chemical Co. Bull.2. 20 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Ellison, L., andA. R. Croft. 1944. Principles and indicators for judging condition and trend of high range-watersheds. U.S. Forest Serv., Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Res. Paper 6.Google Scholar
  25. Evans, Raymond A. 1961. Effect of different densities of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) on growth and survival of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) in the greenhouse. Weeds9: 216–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Finnerty, D. W. 1951. Life cycles and control measures for weedy bromegrasses. [Unpublished manuscript prepared for NC-10 Committee Meeting, Oklahoma City, Okla.]Google Scholar
  27. Fischer, G. W. 1937. Observations on the comparative morphology and taxonomic relationships of certain grass smuts in western North America. Mycologia29: 408–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fleming, C. E., M. A. Shipley, andM. R. Miller. 1942. Bronco grass (Bromus tectorum) on Nevada ranges. Nev. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 159.Google Scholar
  29. Friedrich, C. A. 1945. Seeding wheatgrass on cheatgrass land. U.S. Forest Serv., North. Rocky Mtn. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Res. Note 38.Google Scholar
  30. Garret, O. A. 1921. Smuts and rusts of Utah. IV. Mycologia13: 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hafenrichter, A. L. 1942. The natural grasslands of the Northwest.In: Freeman, O. W., and H. H. Martin [eds.] Pacific Northwest: 146–158.Google Scholar
  32. Hansen, R. A. 1946. Range condition—a classification of the grass-sagebrush range in the Weiser River Soil Conservation District. U.S. Soil Conserv. Serv.Google Scholar
  33. Hanson, H. C. 1950. Ecology of the grassland. II. Bot. Rev.16: 283–360.Google Scholar
  34. Hanson, W. R., andL. A. Stoddart. 1940. Effects of grazing upon bunch wheatgrass. Amer. Soc. Agron., Jour.32: 278–289.Google Scholar
  35. Haupt, H. F. 1956. Nitrogen loss from granitic soils on cheatgrass brome range. Forest Sci.2: 269–272.Google Scholar
  36. Hironaka, M. 1961. The relative rate of root development of cheatgrass and medusahead. Jour. Range Mangt.14: 263–267.Google Scholar
  37. Hitchcock, A. S. 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Ed. 2, rev. by Agnes Chase. U.S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Pub. 200.Google Scholar
  38. Howell, Thomas. 1903. Flora of Northwest America. 792 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Hulbert, Lloyd C. 1955. Ecological studies ofBromus tectorum and other annual bromegrasses. Ecol. Monog.25: 181–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hull, A. C., Jr. 1944. Regrassing southern Idaho range lands. Ida. Ext. Bull. 146.Google Scholar
  41. —. 1949. Growth periods and herbage production of cheatgrass and reseeded grasses in southwestern Idaho. Jour. Range Mangt.2: 183–186.Google Scholar
  42. -, andC. Kenneth Pearse. 1943. How to reseed southern Idaho range lands. U.S. Forest Serv. Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Res. Paper 2.Google Scholar
  43. —, andJ. F. Pechanec. 1947. Cheatgrass—a challenge to range research. Jour. Forestry45: 555–564.Google Scholar
  44. —, andG. Stewart. 1948. Replacing cheatgrass by reseeding with perennial grass on southern Idaho ranges. Amer. Soc. Agron., Jour.40: 694–703.Google Scholar
  45. Hurtt, L. C. 1939. Downy brome (cheatgrass) range for horses. U.S. Forest Serv., North. Rocky Mtn. Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Appl. Forestry Note 89.Google Scholar
  46. Hutchings, S. S., andGeorge Stewart. 1953. Increasing forage yields and sheep production on Intermountain winter ranges. U.S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 925.Google Scholar
  47. Joy, C. R., L. Helwig, T. Reiger, andM. Supola. 1954. A comparison of grass growth on different horizons of three grassland soils. Jour. Range Mangt.7: 212–214.Google Scholar
  48. Kay, Burgess L., C. F. Walker, J. E. Street, andJ. L. Myler. 1958. Range management investigations. Demonstration ranges. Univ. of Calif., Davis [Progress Report].Google Scholar
  49. Kearney, T. H., L. J. Briggs, H. L. Shantz, and others. 1914. Indicator significance of vegetation in Tooele Valley, Utah. Jour. Agr. Res.1: 365–417.Google Scholar
  50. Kosesan, W. H. 1958. Chemical control of cheatgrass on roadsides in eastern Oregon. Res. Progress Report. Western Weed Control Conf., p. 106.Google Scholar
  51. Krall, J. L. 1955. Residual effects of dalapon to spring wheat. Mont. Agr. Exp. Sta., Res. Prog. Rep. Western Weed Control Conf., pp. 52, 53.Google Scholar
  52. Laude, Horton M. 1956. Germination of freshly harvested seed of some western range species. Jour. Range Mangt.9: 126–129.Google Scholar
  53. Leopold, Aldo. 1941. Cheat takes over. The Land1: 310–313.Google Scholar
  54. Megee, C. R. 1938. Wild oats or downy brome. Mich. Agr. Exp. Sta., Occas. Bull.20(3): 153–156.Google Scholar
  55. Packer, Paul E. 1953. Effects of trampling disturbance on watershed condition, runoff, and erosion. Jour. Forestry51: 28–31.Google Scholar
  56. —. 1951. An approach to watershed protection criteria. Jour. Forestry49: 639–644.Google Scholar
  57. Patterson, J. K., andV. E. Youngman. 1960. Can fertilizers effectively increase our range land production. Jour. Range Mangt.13: 255–257.Google Scholar
  58. Parrish, S. B. 1920. The immigrant plants of southern California. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., Bull.19: 3–20.Google Scholar
  59. Pechanec, J. F. 1945. Indicators of downward trend on sagebrush-perennial grass ranges grazed by sheep in the spring and fall. U.S. Forest Serv. Intermountain Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Res. Paper 12.Google Scholar
  60. —,C. E. Fisher, andK. W. Parker. 1948. How to control noxious plants. U.S. Dept. Agr., Yearbook1948: 256–260.Google Scholar
  61. —, andA. C. Hull, Jr. 1945. Spring forage lost through cheatgrass fires. Nat. Wool Grower35(4): 13.Google Scholar
  62. -, andG. Stewart. 1949. Grazing spring-fall sheep ranges of southern Idaho. U.S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 808.Google Scholar
  63. -, -, andJames P. Blaisdell. 1954. Sagebrush burning—good and bad. U.S. Dept. Agr., Farm. Bull. 1945.Google Scholar
  64. Pickford, G. D. 1932. The influence of continued heavy grazing and of promiscuous burning on spring-fall ranges in Utah. Ecology13: 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Piemeisel, R. L. 1932. Weedy abandoned lands and the weed hosts of the beet leaf hopper. U.S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 229.Google Scholar
  66. -. 1938. Changes in weedy plant cover on cleared sagebrush land and their probable causes. U.S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bull. 654.Google Scholar
  67. -. 1942. A general appraisal of plant cover in relation to beet leafhoppers, forage production, and soil protection. Ann. Amer. Soc. Sugarbeet Technol: 1–3.Google Scholar
  68. -. 1945. Natural replacement of weed hosts of beet leafhopper as affected by rodents. U. S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 739.Google Scholar
  69. —. 1951. Causes affecting change and rate of change in a vegetation of annuals in Idaho. Ecology32: 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. -, andJ. C. Chamberlin. 1936. Land-improvement measures in relation to a possible control of the beet leafhopper and curly top. U.S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 416.Google Scholar
  71. Piper, C. V. 1906. Flora of Washington. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. Vol. XI. 637 pp.Google Scholar
  72. —, andR. Kent Beattie. 1901. The flora of the Palouse region. Wash. Agr. Col. and School Sci., Pullman, Wash.Google Scholar
  73. Platt, K., andE. R. Jackman. 1946. The cheatgrass problem in Oregon. Oreg. Agr. Ext. Ser., Bull. 668.Google Scholar
  74. Plummer, A. Perry, A. C. Hull, Jr., George Stewart, andJ. H. Robertson. 1955. Seeding rangelands in Utah, Nevada, southern Idaho, and western Wyoming. U.S. Forest Serv., Agr. Handb. 71.Google Scholar
  75. Range Seeding Equipment Committee. 1959. Handbook, chemical control of range weeds. U.S. Dept. Agr. and U.S. Dept. Int.Google Scholar
  76. Reid, E. H. 1942. Important plants on national forest ranges of eastern Oregon and eastern Washington. U.S. Forest Serv. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Exp. Sta., Range Res. Rep. 1. 64 pp.Google Scholar
  77. -, andG. D. Pickford. 1946. Judging mountain meadow range condition in eastern Oregon and eastern Washington. U. S. Dept. Agr., Cir. 748.Google Scholar
  78. Reitz, L. P., andH. E. Morris. 1939. Important grasses and other important plants on Montana ranges. Mont. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 375.Google Scholar
  79. Richards, L. W. 1940. Effect of certain chemical attributes of vegetation on forest inflammability. Jour. Agr. Res.60: 833–838.Google Scholar
  80. Robertson, J. H., andC. K. Pearse. 1945. Artificial reseeding and the closed community. Northwest Sci.19(3): 58–66.Google Scholar
  81. Robocker, W. C. 1961. The influence of perennial vegetation and precipitation on occurrence ofHalogeton glomeratus andBromus tectorum in arid and semi-arid regions. Jour. Range Mangt.14: 28–34.Google Scholar
  82. Rummell, R. S. 1946. Some effects of competition from cheatgrass brome on crested wheatgrass and bluestem wheatgrass. Ecology27: 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sampson, Arthur W. 1944. Plant succession on burned chaparral lands in northern California. Calif. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 685.Google Scholar
  84. Short, L. R. 1943. Reseeding to increase the yield of Montana range lands. U.S. Dept. Agr., Farm. Bull. 1924.Google Scholar
  85. Spence, Liter E. 1937. Root studies of important range plants of the Boise River watershed. Jour. Forestry35: 747–754.Google Scholar
  86. Spilsbury, R. H., andE. W. Tisdale. 1944. Soil-plant relationships and vertical zonation in the southern interior of British Columbia. Sci. Agr.24: 395–436.Google Scholar
  87. Sprague, Roderick. 1950. Diseases of cereals and grasses in North America (fungi, except smuts and rusts). 538 pp.Google Scholar
  88. —. 1953. Root and crown rots of the grasses. U.S. Dept. Agr., Yearbook1953: 267–272.Google Scholar
  89. Stark, R. H., J. L. Toevs, andA. L. Hafenrichter. 1946. Grasses and cultural methods of reseeding abandoned farm lands in southern Idaho. Ida. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 267.Google Scholar
  90. Stewart, G., andA. C. Hull. 1949. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.)—an ecologie intruder in southern Idaho. Ecology30: 58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. -,R. H. Walker, andR. Price. 1939. Reseeding range lands of the Intermountain Region. U.S. Dept. Agr., Farm. Bull. 1823.Google Scholar
  92. —, andA. E. Young. 1939. The hazard of basing permanent grazing capacity onBromus tectorum. Amer. Soc. Agron., Jour.31: 1002–1015.Google Scholar
  93. Stoddart, L. A. 1946. Seeding arid ranges to grass, with special reference to precipitation. Utah Agr. Exp. Sta., Cir. 122.Google Scholar
  94. Tisdale, E. W. 1947. The grasslands of the southern interior of British Columbia. Ecology28: 346–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. U.S. Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  96. University of Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, College of Forestry. 1959. Eleventh annual report for the fiscal year 1958–1959. 46 pp.Google Scholar
  97. Warg, S. A. 1938. Life history and economic studies onBromus tectorum. Unpub. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Montana. Missoula. 38 pp.Google Scholar
  98. Whitman, Warren. 1941. Grass. No. Dak. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 300.Google Scholar
  99. Wright, J. C., andE. A. Wright. 1948. Grassland types of south central Montana. Ecology29: 449–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Young, V. A. 1943. Changes in vegetation and soil of Palouse Prairie caused by overgrazing. Jour. Forestry41: 834–838.Google Scholar
  101. Zundel, G. L. 1921. Smuts and rusts of northern Utah and southern Idaho. Mycologia13: 179–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1964

Authors and Affiliations

  • James O. Klemmedson
    • 1
  • Justin G. Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment StationForest Service, U. S. Department of AgricultureBoise
  2. 2.Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment StationForest Service, U. S. Department of AgricultureLa Grande

Personalised recommendations