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The Botanical Review

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 107–222 | Cite as

Carbohydrate sources and sinks in woody plants

  • T. T. Kozlowski
Article

Abstract

Each perennial woody plant is a highly integrated system of competing carbohydrate sinks (utilization sites). Internal competition for carbohydrates is shown by changes in rates of carbohydrate movement from sources to sinks and reversals in direction of carbohydrate transport as the relative sink strengths of various organs change. Most carbohydrates are produced in foliage leaves but some are synthesized in cotyledons, hypocotyls, buds, twigs, stems, flowers, fruits, and strobili. Although the bulk of the carbohydrate pool moves to sinks through the phloem, some carbohydrates are obtained by sinks from the xylem sap. Sugars are actively accumulated in the phloem and move passively to sinks along a concentration gradient. The dry weight of a mature woody plant represents only a small proportion of the photosynthate it produced. This discrepancy results not only from consumption of plant tissues by herbivores and shedding of plant parts, but also from depletion of carbohydrates by respiration, leaching, exudation, secretion, translocation to other plants through root grafts and mycorrhizae and losses to parasites. Large spatial and temporal variations occur in the use of reserve- and currently produced carbohydrates in metabolism and growth of shoots, stems, roots, and reproductive structures. A portion of the carbohydrate pool is diverted for production of chemicals involved in defense against fungi, herbivores, and competing plants. Woody plants accumulate carbohydrates during periods of excess production and deplete carbohydrates when the rate of utilization exceeds the rate of production. Stored carbohydrates play an important role in metabolism, growth, defense, cold hardiness, and postponement or prevention of plant mortality.

Zusammenfassung

Jede mehrjährige Holzpflanze stellt ein komplexes System von miteinander konkurrierenden Kohlenhydratverbrauchsorten (sinks) dar. Interne Konkurrenz um Kohlenhydrate zeigt sich in Veränderungen der Kohlenhydrattransportraten vom Produktionsort (source) zum Verbrauchsort (sink) und in Richtungsänderungen des Kohlenhydrattransportes, wenn der relative Kohlenhydratverbrauch einzelner Organe sich ändert. Die meisten Kohlenhydrate werden in Laubblättern produziert, einige jedoch werden in Keimblättern, Hypokotylen, Knospen, Zweigen, Stengeln, Blüten, Früchten und Blütenachsen synthetisiert. Obwohl sich der größte Teil des Kohlenhydratpools im Phloem zu den Verbrauchsorten bewegt, werden jedoch einige Kohlenhydrate dem Xylem entnommen. Zucker werden aktiv im Phloem akkumuliert und bewegen sich entlang eines Konzentrationsgefälles passiv zum Verbrauchsort. Das Trockengewicht einer ausgewachsenen Holzpflanze stellt nur einen geringen Teil der photosynthetischen Produktion dar. Diese Diskrepanz beruht nicht nur auf dem Verbrauch von pflanzlichem Gewebe durch Herbivore und Abwurf von Pflanzenteilen, sondern auch auf der Abschöpfung von Kohlenhydraten durch Atmung, Auswaschung, Ausscheidung, Translokation in andere Pflanzenteile durch Wurzelpfropfe und Verluste an Parasiten. Große räumliche und zeitliche Veränderungen zeigen sich beim Verbrauch von gespeicherten und laufend produzierten Kohlenhydraten im Stoffwechsel und Wachstum von Keimlingen, Sproßachsen, Wurzeln und reproduktiven Organen. Ein Teil des Kohlenhydratpools wird in die Produktion von Abwehrstoffen gegen Pilze, Herbivoren und konkurrierende Pflanzen umgelenkt. Holzpflanzen akkumulieren Kohlenhydrate in Zeiten der Überproduktion, die wieder abgebaut werden, wenn die Verbrauchstrate die Produktionstrate übersteigt. Speicherkohlenhydrate spielen eine wichtige Rolle im Stoffwechsel, Wachstum, Abwehr, Kälteresistenz, und in der Verzögerung oder Vermeidung von Pflanzentod.

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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. T. Kozlowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Studies Program and Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSanta Barbara

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