The Botanical Review

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 113–185 | Cite as

Forest damage and recovery from catastrophic wind

  • Edwin M. Everham
  • Nicholas V. L. Brokaw
Article

Abstract

The literature on the effects of catastrophic wind disturbance (windstorms, gales, cyclones, hurricanes, tornadoes) on forest vegetation is reviewed to examine factors controlling the severity of damage and the dynamics of recovery.

Wind damage has been quantified in a variety of ways that lead to differing conclusions regarding severity of disturbance. Measuring damage as structural loss (percent stems damaged) and as compositional loss (percent stems dead) is suggested as a standard for quantifying severity. Catastrophic wind produces a range of gaps from the size caused by individual treefalls to much larger areas. The spatial pattern of damage is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors that influence severity of damage include stem size, species, stand conditions (canopy structure, density), and the presence of pathogens. Abiotic factors that influence severity of damage include the intensity of the wind, previous disturbance, topography, and soil characteristics.

Recovery from catastrophic wind disturbance follows one of four paths: regrowth, recruitment, release, or repression. The path of recovery for a given site is controlled both by the severity of disturbance and by environmental gradients of resources. Recovery is influenced also by frequency of wind disturbance, which varies across geographical regions.

To develop robust theories regarding catastrophic wind disturbance, the relative roles of different abiotic and biotic factors in controlling the patterns of severity of damage must be determined. These patterns of severity and environmental gradients must then be tied to long-term dynamics of recovery.

Resumen

La literatura sobre los efectos de disturbios catastróficos del viento (tormentas, ventarrones, ciclones, huracánes, tornados) sobre la vegetatión de bosque es revisada para examinar los factores que controlan la severidad del daño y la dinámica de recuperación.

El daño del viento puede ser cuantificado en varias formas, lo cualo conlleva a diferir en las conclusiones en cuanto a la severidad del disturbio. Medir daños como la pérdida estructural (por ciento de tallos dañados) y la pérdida compositional (porcentaje de tallos muertos) son normas sugeridas para cuantificar la severidad. Los vientos catastróficos producen una extensión de aperturas de gran tamaño causados por árboles caídos sobre muchas otras áreas mayores. El patrón espacial de daño es influenciado por factores abióticos y bióticos. Factores bióticos que influyen severamente al daño pueden ser tamaño del tallo, especie, conditión de tolerancia (estructura del dosel, densidad), y la presencia de patogénos. Factores abióticos que influyen severamente sobre el daño incluyen la intensidad del viento, disturbios anteriores, topografía, y las características del suelo.

La recuperatión de las catástrofes causados por el viento siguen uno de cuatro patrones: crecimiento, reclutaje, liberar o reprimir. La trayectoria de recuperatión para un lugar es controlado por ambos: por lo severo del disturbio y por los gradientes ambientales del recurso. La recuperatión es influenciada también por la frecuencia del disturbio por viento, el cual varia sobre el globo.

Para desarrollar una fuerte teoría en cuanto a disturbios catastróficos por viento, los roles relativos de los factores abióticos y bióticos en el control de modelos de severidad de daño tienen que ser determinados. Estos modelos de severidad y gradientes ambientales tienen que ser enlazados para una dinámica de recobro a largo plazo.

РЕФЕРАТ

Обзор литературы о во здействии катастроф ических ветров (штормов, цикло нов, ураганов, смерчей) на лесную растительность с цел ью выявления факторо в, влияющих на величину ущерба и на д инамику рекомпенсац ии.

Ущерб от ветра оценив ается различными мет одами, приводящими к разным выводам. Измерение ущ ерба как структурного воздей ствия (процент повреж денных стволов) и как композиционног о воздействия (процен т погибших стволов) предложено в качестве стандарта. Катастрофический ве тер образует серию пр оплешин, размер которых колеблется в широком диапазоне. Пространственная конфигурация ущерба находится под воздей ствием как биотических, так и аби отических факторов. Б иотические факторы величины уще рба включают: размер с твола, особенности особи, ус ловия древостоя (стру ктура и плотность листвы) и пр исутствие патогенов. Абиотические факторы величины уще рба включают интенси вность ветра, предшествующие атмо сферные возмущения, т опографию и характеристики почв ы.

Рекомпенсация после катастрофического в етрового воздействия следует по одному из четырех п утей: спонтанное возобнов ление, спонтанное зам ещение другими древесными особями, п одавление нижних яру сов древостоя (нуждающееся в их “выс вобождении” от листв ы верхнего яруса), нашествие сорн яковой растительнос ти. Какой из путей рекомпенсации возобладает, зависит от масштаба атмосферного возмущ ения и от целого ряда с редовых градиентов. Рекомпен сация также зависит о т глобально изменчивой частоты в етровых возмущений.

Для создания продукт ивных теорий измерен ия ветрового ущерба нео бходима оценка разли чных биотических и абиотических факто ров, влияющих на велич ину и конфигурацию ущерба. Последняя, а также сре довые градиенты должны быт ь увязаны с долгосроч ной динамикой рекомпенсации.

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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin M. Everham
    • 1
  • Nicholas V. L. Brokaw
    • 2
  1. 1.Radford University RadfordVirginiaUSA
  2. 2.Manomet Observatory for Conservation SciencesManometUSA

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