The Botanical Review

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 93–170 | Cite as

Desert rocks as plant refugia in the Near East

  • Avinoam Danin


The outcrops of smooth-faced rocks in Near Eastern deserts function as refugia for plants that do not fit the present local climate. They have survived in the area from periods when the continuous extensions of the moister climate enabled their penetration from the Mediterranean zone. The largest Mediterranean enclave in Near Eastern deserts and steppes is the sandstone and limestone outcrops at the upper escarpments of the southwestern Jordanian plateau, between At Tafila and Ras en Naqb, including the famous Petra and Wadi Dana. Hundreds of Mediterranean relict species and dozens of endemic species coexist with steppe and desert species in the crevices of these rocks. In this article I discuss the ecology, phytogeography, and distribution of this special habitat in Jordan, the Sinai, and Israel; and I compare the influence on past and present floras of climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene and Holocene in the Near East and Africa.


L’affleurement des roches á surface lisse fonctionne dans les déserts du Proche-Orient comme refuge pour les plantes nonadaptées au climat local actuel. Elles ont survécu dans ces régions depuis des périodes quand les extensions contigües de climat humide ont rendu possible leur pénétration á partir de la zone méditerranéenne. La plus vaste enclave méditerranéenne dans les déserts et steppes du Proche-Orient est l’affleurement de grès et calcaires dans les talus supérieurs du plateau jordanien sudoccidental, entre At Tafila et Ras en Naqb, y compris les célèbres Petra et Wadi Dana. Des centaines d’espèces relictes et des douzaines endémiques coexistent dans les fentes de ces rochers avec les espèces de la steppe et du désert. Dans cet article je discute l’écologie, la phytogéographie, et la distribution de cet habitat spécial en Jordanie, dans le Sinaï, et en Israël; et je compare l’influence sur les flores passées et actuelles des oscillations du climat pendant le Pléistocène et le Holocène au Proche-Orient et en Afrique.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Akers, T. G., R. L. Edmonds, C. L. Krame, B. Lighthart, M. L. McManus, H. E. Schlichting Jr.A. M. Solomon &J. C. Splendlove. 1979. Sources and characteristics of airborne materials. Pp. 11–84in R. L. Edmonds (ed.), Aerobiology. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Eisawi, D. M. 1982. List of Jordan vascular plants. Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München18: 79–182.Google Scholar
  3. —. 1985. Vegetation in Jordan. Pp. 45–57in A. Hadidi (ed.), Studies in the History and Archae-ology of Jordan. II. Ministry of Archaeology, Amman.Google Scholar
  4. —. 1996. Vegetation of Jordan. UNESCO, Cairo Office.Google Scholar
  5. Alves, R. J. V. &J. Kolbek. 1994. Plant species endemism in savanna vegetation on table mountains (Campo Rupestre) in Brazil. Vegetatio 113: 125–139.Google Scholar
  6. Ashbel, D. 1951. Regional climatology of Israel. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  7. Baierle, H. U. 1993. Vegetation und Flora in süd-Westlichen Jordanien. Dissertation an der Freien Uni-versitat Berlin. Dissertationes Botanica oe-Band Nr. 200, J. Cramer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  8. Bar-Matthews, M., A. Ayalon &A. Kaufman. 1997. Late quaternary palaeoclimate in the eastern Mediterranean region from stable isotope analysis of speleothems at Soreq Cave. Israel. Quatern. Res. 47: 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barkman, J. J., J. Moravec &S. Rauschert. 1986. Code of phytosociological nomenclature. Ed. 2. Vegetatio 61: 145–196.Google Scholar
  10. Barsotti, G. &S. Cavalli. 1989. Sulla presenza di vegetazione arborea relitta nel deserto della Giordania Meridionale (Wadi Rum-Qá Disi). Quad. Mus. Storia Nat. Livorno 10: 47–57.Google Scholar
  11. Bartov, Y. 1994. Geological photomap of Israel and adjacent areas, scale 1:750000. Ed. 2. The Geologi-cal Survey, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  12. Bartov, Y., Y. Arkin, Z. Lewy &Y. Mimran. 1981. Regional stratigraphy of Israel. The Geological Survey, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  13. Baruch, U. &N. Goring-Morris. 1997. The arboreal vegetation of the Central Negev Highlands at the end of the Pleistocene, evidence from the archaeological charred wood remains. Veg. Hist. & Ar-chaeobot. 6: 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baskin, J. M. &C. C. Baskin. 1988. Endemism in rock outcrop plant communities of unglaciated east-ern United States: An evaluation of the role of the edaphic, genetic and light factors. J. Biogeogr. 15: 829–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Begin, Z. B., A. Ehrlich &Y. Nathan. 1974. Lake Lisan, the Pleistocene precursor of the Dead Sea. Bull. Geol. Surv. Israel 63: 1–30.Google Scholar
  16. Browicz, K. &D. Zohary. 1996. The genusAmygdalus L. (Rosaceae): Species relationships, distribu-tion and evolution under domestication. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 43: 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caneva, G., E. G. Gori &A. Danin. 1992. Incident rainfall in Rome and its relation to biodeterioration of buildings. Atmosph. Environ. 26B(2): 255–259.Google Scholar
  18. Caneva, G., A. Danin, S. Ricci &C. Conti. 1994. The pitting of the Trajan’s column, Rome: An eco-logical model of its origin. Accad. Nazion. Lincei 88: 77–102.Google Scholar
  19. Chatigny, M. A., R. L. Dimmick &C. J. Mason. 1979. Atmospheric transport. Pp. 85–109in R. L. Ed-monds (ed.), Aerobiology. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg.Google Scholar
  20. Dan, J. & Z. Raz. 1970. The Soil Association Map of Israel (1:250000). Volcani Institute of Agricul-tural Research, Bet Dagan. [In Hebrew with an English abstract].Google Scholar
  21. —,D. H. Yaalon, H. Koyumadjisky &Z. Raz. 1975. The soil association map of Israel (1:500000). Pamphlet No. 147. Volcani Institute of Agricultural Research, Bet Dagan.Google Scholar
  22. Danin, A. 1967a. Varthemietum Iphionoides Desertorum. Israel J. Bot. 16: 53.Google Scholar
  23. —. 1967b. A newOriganum from Israel,Origanum ramonense Danin sp.n. Israel J. Bot. 16: 101–103.Google Scholar
  24. —. 1969. A newOriganum from the Isthmic Desert (Sinai),Origanum isthmicum sp.n. Israel J. Bot. 18: 191–193.Google Scholar
  25. —. 1972. Mediterranean elements in rocks of the Negev and Sinai Deserts. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31: 437–440.Google Scholar
  26. —. 1977a. The vegetation of the Negev, north of Nahal Paran. Sifriat Poalim, Tel Aviv. [In He-brew.]Google Scholar
  27. —. 1977b.Kickxia judaica sp.n. (Scrophulariaceae) and some related species from the deserts of Is-rael and Sinai. Israel J. Bot. 26: 23–31.Google Scholar
  28. —. 1978. Plant species diversity and ecological districts of the Sinai Desert. Vegetatio 36: 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. —. 1980. A newAmygdalus from Israel,Amygdalus ramonensis sp.n. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edin-burgh 38: 283–285.Google Scholar
  30. —. 1981a. Ecological factors affecting the distribution ofTamarix aphylla (L.) Karsten in Israel and Sinai. La-Ya’aran 31: 8–11, 46–48.Google Scholar
  31. —. 1981b. The impact of geomorphologic and climatic conditions on the vegetation of the salt marshes along the Mediterranean coast of Israel and Sinai. Actas III Congr. OPTIMA. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 37: 269–275.Google Scholar
  32. —. 1983a. Desert vegetation of Israel and Sinai. Cana, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  33. —. 1983b. The colors of Jerusalem’s walls. Israel Land and Nat. 8: 94–98.Google Scholar
  34. —. 1983c. Weathering of limestone in Jerusalem by cyanobacteria. Z. Geomorph. 27: 413–421.Google Scholar
  35. —. 1984. Microbial colonization of limestone in the Negev Desert. 3rd Int. ACME Symposium, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  36. —. 1985. Palaeoclimates in Israel: Evidence from weathering patterns of stones in and near ar-chaeological sites. Bull. Amer. School Orient. Res. 259: 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. —. 1986a. Flora and vegetation of Sinai. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Biol. Ser. 89B: 159–168.Google Scholar
  38. —. 1986b. Patterns of biogenic weathering as indicators of palaeoclimates in Israel. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Biol. Ser. 89B: 243–253.Google Scholar
  39. —. 1986c. Patterns of corrosion and abrasion induced by land snails on limestone rocks. Malacol. Rev. 19: 91–98.Google Scholar
  40. —. 1986d. Habitats of lithobionts on limestone. Israel Soc. Microb. Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  41. —. 1988a. Flora and vegetation of Israel. Pp. 129–157in Y. Yom-Tov & E. Tchernov (eds.), The zoogeography of Israel. Dr. Junk, Dordrecht, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  42. —. 1988b. Species new to science discovered in Sinai. Bull. Israeli Acad. Centre Cairo. 9: 10–12.Google Scholar
  43. —. 1989a. The use of biogenic weathering of limestone in palaeoclimatic research. Vol. V-B. Pp. 53–64in E. Spanier, Y. Steinberger & M. Luria (eds.), Environmental quality and ecosystem stabil-ity. ISEEQS Publication, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  44. —. 1989b. Remnants of biogenic weathering as a tool for studying palaeoclimates. Braun-Blan-quetia 3(2): 257–262.Google Scholar
  45. —. 1989c. The impact of prevailing winter winds on the distribution of vegetation in the Judean De-sert. Israel. J. Arid Environ. 17: 301–305.Google Scholar
  46. —. 1990. Two new species ofOriganum (Labiatae) from Jordan. Willdenowia 19(2): 401–404.Google Scholar
  47. —. 1991a. Synanthropic flora of Israel. Fl. Veg. Mundi 9: 95–103.Google Scholar
  48. —. 1991b. A new species ofKickxia (Scrophulariaceae) from Jordan:K. petrana sp.n. Willdenowia 21:181–184.Google Scholar
  49. —. 1992a. Biogenic weathering of marble monuments in Didim, Turkey and in Trajan’s Column, Rome. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Environmental Quality and Ecosystem Stability, Jerusalem V/B: 675–681.Google Scholar
  50. —. 1992b. Pitting of calcareous rocks by organisms under terrestrial conditions. Israel J. Earth-Sci. 41:201–207.Google Scholar
  51. —. 1995. Man and the natural environment. Pp. 24–39in T. E. Levy (ed.), The Archaeology of So-ciety in the Holy Land. Leicester University Press, London.Google Scholar
  52. —. 1996a. Plants of desert dunes.In J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson (series ed.), Adaptations of desert organisms. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  53. —. 1996b. Vegetation of Israel and Sinai. Bot. Zhurn. 81(11): 14–31.Google Scholar
  54. —. 1997. Contributions to the flora of Jordan: New and interesting plants from Dana Nature Re-serve, SW Jordan. Willdenowia 27: 161–175.Google Scholar
  55. -. 1998. Wild plants of Eretz Israel and their distribution. Carta, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  56. — &G. Caneva. 1990. Deterioration of limestone walls in Jerusalem and marble monuments in Rome caused by cyanobacteria and cyanophilous lichens. Biodeter. Intern. 26: 397–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. — &E. Ganor. 1991. Trapping of airborne dust by mosses in the Negev desert. Israel. Earth Sur-face Proc. Land. 16: 153–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. ——. 1997. Trapping of airborne dust by Eig’s meadowgrass (Poa eigii) in the Judean Desert. Israel. J. Arid Environ. 35: 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. — &J. Garty. 1983. Distribution of cyanobacteria and lichens on hillsides of the Negev Highlands and their impact on biogenic weathering. Z. Geomorph. 27: 423–444.Google Scholar
  60. — &I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan: A new species ofSatureja and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135–142.Google Scholar
  61. — &I. Künne. 1996. A new species ofOriganum (Labiatae) from Jordan:O. jordanicum Danin et Künne sp.n., and notes on the species of sectionCampanulaticalyx. Willdenowia 25(2): 601–611.Google Scholar
  62. — &G. Orshan. 1970. Distribution of indigenous trees in the northern and central Negev High-lands. La-Ya’aran 20: 115–120.Google Scholar
  63. — &U. Plitmann. 1987. Revision of the plant geographical territories of Israel and Sinai. Pl. Syst. Evol. 150: 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. — &A. I. Solomeshch. 1999. Synopsis of the vegetation and enumeration of the associations.In A. Danin & G. Orshan (eds.), Vegetation of Israel. I. Desert and coastal vegetation. Buckhuys, Leiden.Google Scholar
  65. —,G. Orshan &M. Zohary. 1964. Vegetation of the Neogene sandy areas of the Northern Negev. Israel J. Bot. 13:208–233.Google Scholar
  66. —,G. Orshan &M. Zohary. 1975. The vegetation of the Northern Negev and the Judean Desert of Israel. Israel J. Bot. 24: 118–172.Google Scholar
  67. —,R. Gerson, K. Marton &J. Garty. 1982. Patterns of limestone and dolomite weathering by li-chens and blue-green algae and their palaeoclimatic significance. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 37: 221–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. —— &J. Garty. 1983. Weathering patterns of hard limestone and dolomite by endolithic li-chens and cyanobacteria: Supporting evidence for eolean origin of Terra-Rossa soil. Soil Sci. 136: 213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. —,M. Wieder &M. Magaritz. 1987. Rhizofossils and root grooves in the Judean Desert and their palaeo-environmental significance. Israel J. Earth-Sci. 36: 91–99.Google Scholar
  70. —,Y. Bar-Or, I. Dor &T. Yisraeli. 1989. The role of cyanobacteria in stabilization of sand dunes in southern Israel. Ecol. Mediterr. 15(1/2): 55–64.Google Scholar
  71. Davis, P. H. 1951. Cliff vegetation in the eastern Mediterranean. J. Ecol. 39(1): 63–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Dorn, R. I. 1982. Rock varnish. Progress Phys. Geogr. 6: 317–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. — &T. M. Oberlander. 1981. Microbial origin of desert varnish. Science (Washington D.C.) 213: 1245–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Duvdevani, S. 1947. An optical method of dew estimation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 73:282–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Eig, A. 1931–1932. Les elements et les groupes phytogeographiques auxiliaires dans la flore Palestini-enne. Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Reg. Veg. Beih. 63(1): 1–201; 63(2) 1–120.Google Scholar
  76. —. 1938. On the pytogeographical subdivision of Palestine. Pal. J. Bot. Jerusalem 1: 4–12.Google Scholar
  77. -,M. Zohary & N. Feinbrun. 1948. Analytical flora of Palestine. Magnes Press and Pal. J. Bot., Jerusalem. [In Hebrew.]Google Scholar
  78. Evenari, M., L. Shanan &N. H. Tadmor. 1982. The Negev: The challenge of a desert. Ed. 2. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  79. Feinbrun-Dothan, N. 1978. Flora Palaestina, part iii. Israel Acad. Sci. Human., Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  80. -. 1986. Flora Palaestina, part iv. Israel Acad. Sci. Human., Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  81. -& A. Danin. 1991. Analytical flora of Eretz Israel. Cana, Jerusalem. [In Hebrew.]Google Scholar
  82. Fleischmann, K., S. Porembski, N. Biedinger &W. Barthlott. 1996. Inselbergs in the sea: Vegetation of granite outcrops on the islands of Mahé, Praslin and Silhouette (Seychelles). Bull. Geobot. Inst. ETH. 62: 61–74.Google Scholar
  83. Friedmann, E. I., Y. Lipkin &R. Ocampo-Paus. 1967. Desert algae of the Negev (Israel). Phycologia 6: 185–196.Google Scholar
  84. Ganor, E. &D. H. Yaalon. 1974. Accumulation and distribution of loess-derived deposits in the semi desert and desert fringe areas of Israel. Z. Geomorphol. Suppl. 20: 91–105.Google Scholar
  85. —,R. Markovitz, Y. Kesler &N. Rosenan. 1973. Climate of Sinai. Israel Meteorological Service, Publ. Ser. E22: 1–43. [In Hebrew.]Google Scholar
  86. Golubic, S., E. I. Friedmann &J. Schneider. 1981. The lithobiontic ecological niche, with special ref-erence to microorganisms. J. Sedimnt. Petrol. 51: 475–478.Google Scholar
  87. Halevy, G. &G. Orshan. 1972. Ecological studies on theAcacia species in the Negev and Sinai. I. Dis-tribution ofAcacia raddiana, A. tortilis, andA. gerradii ssp.negevensis. Israel J. Bot. 21:197–208.Google Scholar
  88. Hanski, I. &M. E. Gilpin. 1991. Metapopulation dynamics: Brief history and conceptual domain. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 42:3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Henssen, A. 1987.Lichenothelia, a genus of microfungi on rocks. Biblioth. Lichenol. 25: 257–293.Google Scholar
  90. Hill, M. O. 1973. Diversity and evenness: A unifying rotation and its consequences. Ecology 54: 425–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Horowitz, A. 1976. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of prehistoric settlements in the Avdat/Aqev area. Pp. 57–67in A. E. Marks (ed.), Preshistory and palaeoenvironments in the Central Negev. SMU Press, Dallas.Google Scholar
  92. —. 1979. The Quaternary of Israel. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  93. —. 1992. Palynology of arid lands. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  94. Hungate, B., A. Danin, N. B. Pellerin, J. Stemmler, P. Kjellander, J. B. Adams &J. T. Staley. 1987. Characterization of manganese-oxidizing (MnII-MnIV) bacteria from Negev Desert rock varnish: Implications in desert varnish formation. Canad. J. Microbiol. 33: 939–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hunt, D. R. 1966.Tamaricaceae. Pp. 1–2in E. Milne-Redhead & R. M. Polhill (eds.), Flora of tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.Google Scholar
  96. Ietswaart, J. H. 1980. A taxonomic revision of the genusOriganum (Labiatae). Leiden University Press, The Hague.Google Scholar
  97. Israel Meteorological Service. 1950–1975. Monthly weather reports and annual rainfall summaries. Bet Dagan and Tel Aviv.Google Scholar
  98. Jenny, M. &U. Smettan. 1991. Distribution pattern of plants on a sand dune and the adjacent playa in the Wadi Araba (Jordan). Fl. Veg. Mundi 9: 155–166.Google Scholar
  99. Johnson, M. P. &P. H. Raven. 1970. Natural regulation of plant species diversity. Evol. Biol. 4: 127–162.Google Scholar
  100. Kadmon, R. &A. Danin. 1997. Floristic variation in Israel: a GIS analysis. Flora 192: 341–345.Google Scholar
  101. Kaufman, A., Y. Yechieli &M. Gardosh. 1992. Reevaluation of the lake-sediment chronology in the Dead Sea Basin, Israel, based on new230Th/U dates. Quart. Res. 38: 292–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Klein, C. 1981. The influence of rainfall over the catchment area on the fluctuations of level of the Dead Sea since the 12th century. Israel Meteor. Res. Papers 3: 29–58.Google Scholar
  103. Kürschner, H. 1986. A physiognomical-ecological classification of the vegetation of southern Jordan. Pp. 45–79in H. Kürschner (ed.), Contributions to the vegetation of Southwest Asia. Dr. L. Rei-chert, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  104. Lange, W. 1974. Chelating agents and blue-green algae. Canad. J. Microbiol. 20: 1311–1321.Google Scholar
  105. Le Houérou, H. N. 1995. Bioclimatologie et biogéographie des steppes arides du nord de l’Afrique. CIHEAM/ACCT, Montpellier, Paris.Google Scholar
  106. Lipkin, Y. 1971. Vegetation of the Southern Negev. Ph.D. diss., The Hebrew University. [In Hebrew with an English abstract.]Google Scholar
  107. Maire, R. 1933, 1940. Etudes sur la flore et la végétation du Sahara central. Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afri-que N. 3: 1–272 [1933], 273–433 [1940].Google Scholar
  108. Mamane, Y., E. Ganor &A. Donagi. 1982. Aerosol composition of urban and desert origin in the east Mediterranean. II. Deposition of large particles. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 18: 475–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Monod, Th. 1954. Modes “contracté” et “diffus” de la vegetation Saharienne. Pp. 35–44in J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (ed.), Biology of deserts. Stechert-Hafner, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Moore, C. J. &G. A. M. Scott. 1979. The ecology of mosses on a sand dune in Victoria. Australia. J. Bryol. 10:291–311.Google Scholar
  111. Neev, D. &K. O. Emery. 1967. The Dead Sea: Depositional processes and environments of evaporites. Bull. Geol. Surv. Israel 41: 1–147.Google Scholar
  112. Newell, R. E. 1971. The global circulation of atmospheric pollutants. Sci. Amer. 224: 32–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nienow, J. A., C. P. McKay &E. I. Friedmann. 1988. The cryptoendolithic microbial environment in the Ross Desert of Antarctica: Light in the photosynthetically active region. Microbiol. Ecol. 16: 271–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ollier, C. D. 1978. Inselbergs of the Namib Desert: Processes and history. Z. Geomorph. N.F. Suppl. 31: 161–176.Google Scholar
  115. Porembski, S. 1996. Notes on the vegetation of inselbergs in Malawi. Flora 191: 1–8.Google Scholar
  116. —,W. Barthlott, S. Dörrstock &N. Biedinger. 1994. Vegetation of rock outcrops in Guinea: Granite inselbergs, sandstone table mountains and ferricretes: Remarks on species numbers and en-demism. Flora 189: 315–326.Google Scholar
  117. Quezel, P. 1965. La végétation du Sahara, du Tchad á la Mauritanie. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart; Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  118. — &C. Martinez. 1961. Le dernier interpluvial au Sahara central: Essai de chronologie palynolo-gique et paléo-climatique. Libyca 6-7: 211–227.Google Scholar
  119. Rabinovitch, A. 1981. Lithology, soil, and Mediterranean vegetation. Mada 25:180–184. [In Hebrew.]Google Scholar
  120. Rosenan, N. &A. Gilead. 1985. Maps of mean annual precipitation and temperature. Atlas of Israel, 14/1. Ed. 3. Department of Surveys, Ministry of Labour, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  121. Rudich, D. &A. Danin. 1978. The vegetation of the Hazeva area. Israel. Israel J. Bot. 27: 160–176.Google Scholar
  122. Schick, A. P. 1971. A desert flood: Physical characteristics, effects on man, geomorphic significance, human adaptation, a case study of the Southern Arava watershed. Jerusalem Studies in Geography 2:91–155.Google Scholar
  123. Shanan, L., N. H. Tadmor &M. Evenari. 1958. Utilization of runoff from small watersheds in the Abde (Avdat) region. Israel J. Agric. Res. 9: 107–129.Google Scholar
  124. ———. 1967. Rainfall patterns in the central Negev desert. Israel Explor. J. 17: 163–184.Google Scholar
  125. Sharon, D. 1972. The spottiness of rainfall in a desert area. J. Hydrol. 17: 161–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. —. 1980. The distribution of hydrologically effective incident rainfall on sloping ground. J. Hydrol. 46: 165–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shmida, A. 1977. Remarks on the paleo-climates of Sinai based on distribution patterns of relict plants. Pp. 36–42in O. Bar-Yosef & J. L. Phillips (eds.), Prehistoric investigations in Gebel Maghara, northern Sinai, Qedem 7. The Hebrew University, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  128. Simberloff, D. 1996. Extinction and ecosystem management. Pp. 497–499in Y. Steinberger (ed.), Pres-ervation of our world in the wake of change. 6th Int. Conf. Israel Soc. Ecol. Env. Quality Sci. Jeru-salem. ISEEQS Publication, VIB, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  129. Smith, G. A. 1931. The historical geography of the Holy Land. Ed. 25. Hodder and Stoughton, London.Google Scholar
  130. Tchernov, E. 1998. Are Late Pleistocene environmental factors, faunal changes and cultural transforma-tions causally connected? The case of the southern Orient. Paléorient. 23(2): 209–228.Google Scholar
  131. Thomas, M. F. 1978. The study of inselbergs. Z. Geomorph. N.F. Suppl. 31: 1–41.Google Scholar
  132. Twidale, C. R. &J. A. Bourne. 1974. Reinforcement and stabilisation mechanisms in landform devel-opment. Rev. Géomorph. Dyn. 24: 25–71.Google Scholar
  133. Waisel, Y. 1960. Ecological studies onTamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. I. Distribution and reproduction. Phyton 15: 7–17.Google Scholar
  134. Walsh G. E. 1974. Mangroves: A review. Pp. 51–174in R. J. Reimold & W. H. Queen (eds.), Ecology of halophytes. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  135. White, F. 1983. The vegetation of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  136. — &J. Léonard. 1991. Phytogeographical links between Africa and Southwest Asia. Fl. Veg. Mundi 9: 229–246.Google Scholar
  137. Wickens, G. E. 1975. Changes in the climate and vegetation of the Sudan since 20000 B.P. Boissiera 24: 43–65.Google Scholar
  138. —. 1976. The flora of Jebel Marra (Sudan Republic) and its geographical affinities. Kew Bull. 5: 1–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Willis, B. 1934. Inselbergs. Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 24: 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. —. 1936. Studies in comparative seismology: East African plateaus and rift valleys. Carnegie Insti-tution, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  141. Yaalon, D. H. 1963. On the origin and accumulation of salts in groundwater and soils of Israel. Bull. Res. Counc. Israel 11c: 105–131.Google Scholar
  142. — &J. Dan. 1974. Accumulation and distribution of loess-derived deposits in the semi-arid and desert fringe areas of Israel. Z. Geomorph. N.F. 20: 91–105.Google Scholar
  143. — &E. Ganor. 1975. Rates of aeolian dust accretion in the Mediterranean and desert fringe envi-ronments of Israel. 9th Intern. Congr. Sedimentology, Nice 2: 169–174.Google Scholar
  144. Yair, A. &A. Danin. 1980. Spatial variations in vegetation as related to the soil moisture regime over an arid limestone hillside. Northern Negev. Oecologia (Berl.) 47: 83–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Young, A. 1972. Slopes. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  146. Zangvil, A. &P. Druian. 1980. Measurements of dew at a desert site in southern Israel. Geogr. Res. Fo-rum 2: 26–34.Google Scholar
  147. Zanten, B. O. van. 1978. Experimental studies on trans-oceanic long-range dispersal of moss spores in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 44: 455–482.Google Scholar
  148. —. 1984. Some considerations on the feasibility of long-distance transport in bryophytes. Acta Bot. Neerl. 33: 231–232.Google Scholar
  149. Zohary, M. 1962. The plant life of Palestine (Israel and Jordan). Chronica Botanica no. 33. Ronald Press, New York.Google Scholar
  150. —. 1966. Flora Palaestina, part i. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  151. —. 1972. Flora Palaestina, part ii. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  152. —. 1973. Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. Geobotanica Selecta, vol. 3. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avinoam Danin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Evolution, Systematics, and Ecology The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life SciencesThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations