The Botanical Review

, Volume 64, Issue 4, pp 291–322 | Cite as

Taxaceae: The genera and cultivated species

  • Edward A. Cope
Article

Abstract

Past and present research and literature are assembled into a review of the Taxaceae. Five genera and 13 cultivated species are described, including keys and illustrations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bailey, L. H. 1933. The cultivated conifers in North America. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Baxter, J. N., B. Lythgoe, B. Schahes, S. Trippet & B. K. Blount. 1958. Taxine I, The major alkaloid of the yew,Taxus baccata L. Proc. Chem. Soc. (London) 9.Google Scholar
  3. Bierhorst, D. 1971. Morphology of vascular plants. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Bliss, M. C. 1918. Interrelationships of the Taxineae. Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 66: 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, R. G. &F. E. Hull. 1951.Taxus (yew) poisoning of cattle. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 118:398.Google Scholar
  6. Buchholz, J. T. 1934. The classification of Coniferales. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 25: 112–113.Google Scholar
  7. —. 1940. The embryogeny ofTorreya with a note onAustrotaxus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 67: 731–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. —. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 110: 80–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chadwick, L. C. 1951. The best ofTaxus. Amer. Nurseryman 93: 13–82.Google Scholar
  10. — &R. A. Keen. 1976. A study of the genusTaxus. Ohio Agric. Res. & Developm. Ctr. Bull. 1086. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster.Google Scholar
  11. Chamberlain, C. J. 1935. Gymnosperms, structure and evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  12. Chang, Y. P. 1954. Bark structure of North American conifers. Techn. Bull. no. 1095. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  13. Chen, Z. K. &F. X. Wang. 1978. Embryogeny ofPseudotaxus chienii in relation to its systematic position. ActaPhytotax. Sin. 16(2): 1–10.Google Scholar
  14. ——. 1984. On the systematic position ofAmentotaxus from its embryological investigation. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 22: 269–276.Google Scholar
  15. Cheng, W. C. 1934. Enumeration of Chekiang plants III. Contr. Biol. Lab. Chin. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. Sect. Bot. 4: 240.Google Scholar
  16. —. 1947. New Chinese trees and shrubs. Res. Notes Forest. Inst. Natl. Centr. Univ., Nanking Dendrol. Ser. 1:1–4.Google Scholar
  17. —,L. K. Fu &C. Y. Cheng. 1975. Gymnospermae Sinicae. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 13: 56–89.Google Scholar
  18. —,— &C. D. Chu. 1978. Taxaceae. Pp. 436–467in W. C. Cheng & L. K. Fu (eds.), Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae, Gymnosperms. Tom. 7. Academica Sinica Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
  19. Ching, R. C. 1927. Supplemental notes on the distribution and habitat of Chinese torreyas. Contr. Biol. Lab. Chin. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. 3:10–37.Google Scholar
  20. Chang, T. I. &W. C. Hu. 1965. Study ofAmentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilger. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 4:10–14.Google Scholar
  21. Chowdhury, C. R. 1962. The embryogeny of Conifers: A review. Phytomorphology 12: 313–338.Google Scholar
  22. Chun, W. Y. 1925. Two new trees from Chekiang. J. Arnold Arbor. 7: 144.Google Scholar
  23. Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  24. — &S. J. Vance. 1991. The yew in cultivation. Amer. Conifer Soc. Bull. 8: 241–250.Google Scholar
  25. Coulter, J. M. 1905. Gametophytes and embryo ofTorreya taxifolia. Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 39: 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. — &C. J. Chamberlain. 1917. Morphology of gymnosperms. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  27. Dallimore, W. 1908. Holly, yew and box with notes on other evergreens. John Lane, London.Google Scholar
  28. Den Ouden, P. &D. K. Boom. 1965. Manual of cultivated conifers. Martinus Nijhof, The Hague.Google Scholar
  29. Dogra, P. D. 1980. Embryogeny of gymnosperms and taxonomy—An assessment. Glimpses Pl. Res. 5: 114–128.Google Scholar
  30. Doyle, J. &M. Brennan. 1971. Cleavage polyembryony in conifers and taxads—A survey. I. Podocarps, taxads and taxodioids. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. Ser. A. 4: 57–88.Google Scholar
  31. Ferguson, D. K. 1978. Some current research on fossil and recent taxads. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 26: 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. —. 1984. A new species ofAmentotaxus (Taxaceae) from northeastern India. Kew Bull. 40: 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Florin, R. 1931. Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Coniferales und Cordaitales. Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 10:1–588.Google Scholar
  34. —. 1948a. Enumeration of gymnosperms collected on Swedish expeditions to western and northwestern China in 1930–1934. Acta Horti Berg. 14: 343–384.Google Scholar
  35. —. 1948b. OnNothotaxus, a new genus of the Taxaceae, from eastern China. Acta Horti Berg. 14: 385–395.Google Scholar
  36. —. 1948c. On the morphology and relationships of the Taxaceae. Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 110: 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. -. 1948d.Nothotaxus orPseudotaxus. Sutryck ur Botaniska Notiser 1948. Hort. Bot. Berg., March 1948.Google Scholar
  38. —. 1951. Evolution in Cordaites and conifers. Acta Horti Berg. 15: 285–388.Google Scholar
  39. —. 1954. The female reproductive organs of conifers and taxads. Biol. Rev. City Coll. 29:367–389.Google Scholar
  40. —. 1963. The distribution of conifer and taxad genera in time and space. Acta Horti Berg. 20: 121–312.Google Scholar
  41. Foster, A. S. &E. M. Gifford Jr. 1974. Comparative morphology of vascular plants. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  42. Gaussen, H. 1979. Les Gymnospermes, actuelles et fossiles, XV Les Taxines. Trav. Lab. Forest., Toulouse, Vol. 1. Toulouse.Google Scholar
  43. Geiger, H. &C. Quinn. 1975. Biflavonoids.In J. B. Harborne et al. (eds.), The flavonoids. Vol. 2. Chap-man & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  44. Godfrey, R. K. &H. Kurz. 1962. The Florida torreya destined for extinction. Science 136: 900–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Graf, E., H. Boeddeker &R. Rosha. 1958. Taxin B. das Hauptalkoloid vonTaxus baccata C. Arch. Pharm. & Ber. Deutsch. Pharm. Ges. 291: 443.Google Scholar
  46. Greguss, P. 1955. Identification of living gymnosperms on the basis of xylotomy. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.Google Scholar
  47. Gueritte-Vogelein, F. 1987. Taxol and deriviatives: A biogenetic hypothesis. J. Nat. Prod. 50: 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hart, J. A. 1987. A cladistic analysis of conifers: Preliminary results. J. Arnold Arbor. 68: 269–307.Google Scholar
  49. Hatfield, T. D. 1921. Raising yews from seed at Wellesley. Gard. Mag. (New York). 33: 23–26.Google Scholar
  50. He, G. F., Z. W. Ma &W. F. Yin. 1983. Biflavone ofTorreya jackii Chun and taxonomic significance. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21:433–435.Google Scholar
  51. —,——. 1985. A new diterpenoid component torrey agrandate from leaves ofTorreya grandis Fort, endemic in China. Acta Bot. Sin. 27: 300–303.Google Scholar
  52. —,—,—,Z. L. Xu, J. G. Pan &Q. C. Zhu. 1986. Studies on essential oil composition in leaves ofTorreya grandis cv. ‘Merillii’ and chemotaxonomy. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24: 447–453.Google Scholar
  53. Holten, R. A., C. Samoza, H. B. Kim, F. Liang, R. J. Biediger, P. D. Boatman, M. Shindo, C. C. Smith &S. Kim. 1994. First total synthesis of taxol. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 116: 1587–1600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hu, H. H. 1927. Synoptical study of Chinese torreyas, with supplemental notes on the distribution and habitat by R. C. Ching. Contrib. Biol. Lab. Chin. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. 3:1–37.Google Scholar
  55. —. 1934. Distribution of taxads and conifers in China. Proc. 5. Pacific Sci. Congress 4:3273–3288.Google Scholar
  56. Hu, S. Y. 1964. Notes on the flora of China IV. Taiwania 10: 13–62.Google Scholar
  57. Hu, Z. A., H. X. Wang, C. J. Liu &Z. X. Qian. 1986. Biochemical systematics of gymnosperms (3)—On the syststematic position of Taxaceae from their seed protein peptides and needle peroxidases. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24: 454–457.Google Scholar
  58. Janchen, E. 1949. Das System der Koniferen. Osterr. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Sitzungsber., Abt. 1, Biol. 158:155–262.Google Scholar
  59. Jeffrey, E. C. 1903. The comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Coniferales. I. The genusSequoia. Boston Society of Natural History, Boston.Google Scholar
  60. Jones, I. &E. V. Lynn. 1933. Differences in species ofTaxus. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 22: 528–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keng, H. 1969. Aspects of morphology ofAmentotaxus formosana with a note on the taxonomic position of the genus. J. Arnold Arbor. 50:432–445.Google Scholar
  62. Khan, M. S. Y., I. Kumar, J. S. Prasad, G. R. Nagarajan, M. R. Parthasarathy &H. G. Krishna-murty. 1976. Phenolic constituents ofTaxus baccata leaves. Pl. Med. 30: 82–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Khooshoo, T. N. 1961. Chromosome numbers in gymnosperms. Silvae Genet. 10: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Koidzumi, G. 1932. Notes on Amentotaxaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 1:185.Google Scholar
  65. —. 1942. Further notes on Amentotaxaceae Kudo. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11: 135.Google Scholar
  66. Krussmann, G. 1979. Die Nadelgeholze. Paul Parey, Berlin.Google Scholar
  67. —. 1983. Handbuch der Nadelgeholze. Paul Parey, Berlin.Google Scholar
  68. —. 1985. Manual of cultivated conifers. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  69. Kudo, Y. & Y. Yamamoto. 1931. Amentotaxaceae. Pp. 110–111in Y. Kudo (ed.), Mater. Fl. Formosa IV Soc. Trop. Agric. 3:110–111.Google Scholar
  70. Lan, K. M. &F. H. Zhang. 1984. A new variety ofAmentotaxus argotaenia. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 22: 492.Google Scholar
  71. Laubenfels, D. J. de. 1972. Gymnospermes. Fl. Nouvelle Caledonie et dependances 4: 1–168.Google Scholar
  72. —. 1978. The taxonomy of Philippine Coniferae and Taxaceae. Kalikasan 7: 117–152.Google Scholar
  73. —. 1988. Coniferales. Flora Malesiana. Ser. 1, 10: 337–453.Google Scholar
  74. Lee, S. C. 1935. Forest botany of China. Commercial Press, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  75. —. 1973. Forest botany of China supplement. Chinese Forestry Association, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  76. Li, H. L. 1952. The genusAmentotaxus. J. Arnold Arbor. 33: 192–198.Google Scholar
  77. —. 1963. Woody flora of Taiwan. Livingston Publishing, Narbeth, PA.Google Scholar
  78. —. 1975. Taxaceae. Flora of Taiwan 1: 499–501. Epoch Publishing, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  79. Ma, Z. W., G. F. He &W. F. Yin. 1982. Study of major chemical components ofPseudotaxus chienii. Acta Bot. Sin. 24: 554–557.Google Scholar
  80. —,——. 1985. The distribution of biflavones in Taxaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 23: 192–195.Google Scholar
  81. —,——. 1986. Study on chemical components in leaves ofAmentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilger native to China. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24:443–446.Google Scholar
  82. Miller, C. N. 1988. Origin of modern conifer families. Pp. 444–486in C. B. Beck (ed.), Origin and evolution of Gymnosperms. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Miller, H. J. 1973. The wood ofAmentotaxus. J. Arnold Arbor. 54:111–119.Google Scholar
  84. Morelli, I. 1976. Constituenti diTaxus baccata L. Fitoterapia 47: 31–38.Google Scholar
  85. Morikawa, K. 1928.Torreya ignensis, a new species of the genusTorreya, andTorreya macrosperma. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 533–536.Google Scholar
  86. Nakai, T. 1938. Indigenous species of conifers and taxads of Korea and Manchuria, and their distribution. I. Tyosen Sanrin Kaiho 158:1–29.Google Scholar
  87. Nicolaou, K. C., C. F. Claiborne, P. G. Nantermet, E. A. Couladouros &E. J. Sorensen. 1994a. Synthesis of novel taxoids. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 116: 1591–1592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. —,R. K. Guy &P. Potier. 1994b. Taxoids: New weapons against cancer. Sci. Amer. 274:94–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. —,Z. Yang, J. J. Liu, H. Ueno, P. G. Nantermet, R. K. Guy, C. F. Claiborne, J. Renaud, E. A. Couladouros, K. Paulvannan &E. J. Sorensen. 1994c. Total synthesis of taxol. Nature 367: 630–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nicolosi, R. T. &R. D. Lineberger. 1982. Differences ofTaxus species and selected cultivars based on leaf and pollen surface characters. Hortscience 17: 5210.Google Scholar
  91. Pilger, R. 1903. Taxaceae.In A. Engler & K. Prantl (eds.), Pflanzenr. 4 (Heft 18): 1–124.Google Scholar
  92. —. 1916a. Kritische Ubersicht uber die neuere Literatur betreffend die Familie der Taxaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54:1–43.Google Scholar
  93. —. 1916b. Die Taxales. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 25: 1–28.Google Scholar
  94. —. 1926. Coniferae. Pp. 99–403in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Ed. 2. Vol. 13. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  95. Price, R. A. 1990. The genera of Taxaceae in southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71:91.Google Scholar
  96. Rehder, A. 1919. New species, varieties and combinations from the herbarium and the collections of the Arnold Arboretum. J. Arnold Arbor. 1: 44–60.Google Scholar
  97. —. 1940. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  98. Robertson, A. 1907. The Taxoideae, a phylogenetic study. New Phytol. 6: 92–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sahni, B. 1920. Taxales. Ann. Bot. (London) 34: 117–133.Google Scholar
  100. Saxton, W. T. 1934. Notes on Conifers. VIII. The morphology ofAustrotaxus spicata Compton. Ann. Bot. (London)48: 411–427.Google Scholar
  101. Singh, H. 1961. The life history and systematic position ofCephalotaxus drupacea Sieb. et Zucc. Phytomorphology 11: 153–197.Google Scholar
  102. —. 1978. Embryology of gymnosperms.In K. Linsbauer (ed.), Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie. Ed. 2. Band 10, Teil 2. Borntraeger, Berlin.Google Scholar
  103. Sporne, K. R. 1965. The morphology of gymnosperms. Hutchinson, London.Google Scholar
  104. Sugihara, Y. 1943. Notes onAmentotaxus. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 57: 404–405.Google Scholar
  105. —. 1946. Morphologische Untersuchingen uberAmentotaxus argotaenia Pilger. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 59: 61–67.Google Scholar
  106. Tang, Z. X., Z. K. Chen &F. H. Wang. 1986. Investigation on sexual reproductive cycle inTorreya grandis. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24: 447–453.Google Scholar
  107. Wang, F. H., Z. K. Chen &Y. S. Hu. 1979. On the systematic position of Taxaceae from the embryological and anatomical studies. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17: 1–7.Google Scholar
  108. Wani, M. C., H. L. Taylor, M. E. Wall, P. Coggon &A. T. McPhail. 1971. Plant antitumor agents. VI. The isolation and structure of taxol, a novel antileukemic and antitumor agent fromTaxus brevifolia. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93: 2325–2327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ward, D. B. 1979. Endangered and rare plants of Florida. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  110. Wilde, M. H. 1944. A new interpretation of coniferous cones. Ann. Bot. (London) 8: 1–41.Google Scholar
  111. —. 1975. A new interpretation of microsporangiate cones in Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae. Phytomorphology 25: 434–450.Google Scholar
  112. Wilson, E. H. 1916. The conifers and taxads of Japan. Publ. of Arnold Arbor., No. 8. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  113. Wyman, D. 1964. Much confusion, big variety in the widely grown yew. Amer. Nurseryman 112:12–13, 88–91, 112–119.Google Scholar
  114. Xi, Y. Z. 1986a Studies on pollen morphology of Taxaceae of China. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24:243–252.Google Scholar
  115. —. 1986b. Ultrastructure of pollen exine inAmentotaxus Pilger and its significance in taxonomy. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24:439–442.Google Scholar
  116. Yamamoto, Y. 1932. Supplemente Iconum Plantarum Formosarum. Vol. 5. Dept. of Forestry, Government Research Institute, Taihoku, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  117. Yatagai, M. &T. Sato. 1986. Terpenes of leaf oils from conifers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 14: 469–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward A. Cope
    • 1
  1. 1.L. H. Bailey HortoriumCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations