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The Botanical Review

, Volume 59, Issue 3, pp 155–210 | Cite as

Competition and allelopathy in aquatic plant communities

  • Brij Gopal
  • Usha Goel
Article

Abstract

The paper reviews the published literature on the studies of competition and allelopathy in aquatic plant communities. Taking a broader view of the community, the studies on interactions between macrophytes and microphytes, macrophytes and macro-invertebrates and microbial communities are also reviewed. The role of these interactions in the structure and dynamics of aquatic communities has been discussed in light of the current hypotheses concerning competition in terrestrial communities. The available information suggests that the aquatic plants of various growth forms differ greatly among themselves in their responses and adaptations to competition and allelopathy. The possible application of these interactions in biological control of plant pests and in agriculture is also summarized.

We conclude that the observed differences in these interactions between the terrestrial and aquatic environment are due to the effects of water as a non-resource variable as well as due to special adaptive characteristics of aquatic plants. Further we hypothesize that the aquatic plants adopt both competitive and allelopathic strategies under different conditions and in interactions with different plants.

The review highlights that our knowledge of both competition and allelopathy among aquatic plant communities is inadequate and fragmentary, and therefore, both extensive and intensive studies are required.

Keywords

Botanical Review Aquatic Plant Competitive Ability Aquatic Macrophyte Water Hyacinth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Zusammenfassung

Dieser Artikel bespricht die über Studien zu Konkurrenz- und Allelopathieverhalten bei Wasserpflanzengeschaften veröffentlichte Literatur. In einem breiten Überblick über die Gesellschaft werden auch die Studien zu Interaktionen zwischen Makrophyten und Mikrophyten, Makrophyten und Makro-invertebraten und Mikro-bengemeinschaften erötert. Die Rolle dieser Interaktionen in der Struktur und Dynamik von Lebensgemeinschaften im Wasser wird im Licht aktueller Hypothesen zum Thema Konkurrenz bei Legensgemeinschaften auf dem Land diskutiert. Das vorhandenen Daten lassen vermuten, daß sich Wasserpflanzen verschiedener Wachstumsformen in ihrem Reaktions- und Anpassungsverhalten hinsichtilich Konkurrenze und Allelopathie beträchtlich voneinander unterschieden. Die mögliche Anwendung dieser Interaktionen in der biologischen Schädlingskontrolle und der Landwirtschaft wird ebenfalls zusammengefaßt.

Es wird deutlich, daß die bei diessen Interaktionen zwischen einer Land- und einer Wasserumgebung beobachteten Unterschiede sowohl auf die Wirkungen von Wasser als einer Nicht-Ressourcen-Variablen (“non-resource variables”) als auch auf das besondere Anpassungsverhalten von Wasserpflanzen zurückzuführen sind. Im weiteren stellen wir die Hypothese auf, daß Wasserpflanzen unter bestimmten Bedingungen und in ihren Interaktionen mit verschiedenen Pflanzen sowohl Kompetitive als auch allelopathische Strategien einsetzen.

Der Überblick hebt hervor, daß unsere Kenntnisse von Konkurrenze und Al-lelopathie bei Wasserpflanzen unvollständig und unzulänglich sind und darum sowohl extensive als auch intensive Studien erfordern.

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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brij Gopal
    • 1
  • Usha Goel
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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