American Potato Journal

, Volume 68, Issue 7, pp 425–443 | Cite as

Response of Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes to nitrogen fertilizer in two cropping systems

  • G. A. Porter
  • J. A. Sisson
Article

Abstract

Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes were grown with at-planting N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 270 kg ha−1 during 1986 through 1989. Experiments were conducted each year following small grains and red clover. Total yields and tuber size were strongly increased by N on most sites where potatoes followed small grains. Specific gravities declined with increasing N rate. Total yields of Russet Burbank and Shepody were optimized at an average of 196 and 211 kg ha−1 of N, respectively, following small grains.

The effect of N fertilizer on yields was much less dramatic following red clover. Total yields averaged 88% of maximum with only 45 kg ha−1 of N applied, compared to 77% of maximum for this N rate following small grains. Total yields for the two varieties were optimized at 126 and 136 kg ha−1, respectively. U.S. #1 yields were generally not increased at N rates above 45 to 90 kg ha−1 following red clover and tuber size was not increased at rates above 90 to 135 kg ha−1. Based on these studies, the N fertilizer credit for red clover grown prior to potatoes can be up to 75 kg ha−1. Maintenance of tuber quality necessitates conservative use of N fertilizer when potatoes are grown following legumes. The highest N rates tested suppressed total yields of Russet Burbank, a late-season, indeterminate variety, by approximately 9% averaged over cropping systems.

Additional Key Words

Yield specific gravity tuber quality tuber size distribution hollow heart crop rotation nitrogen fertilizer equivalency soil mineral nitrogen 

Compendio

Papas Russet Burbank y Shepody fueron cultivadas bajo dosis de fertilizante nitrogenado que variaban de 0 a 270 kg ha−1, a continuacion del cultivo de paqueños granos y trebol rojo. Durante las temporadas de cultivo 1986 a 1989 se tomaron muestras de peciolos del 4to. y 5to. folíolo en 4 a 6 fechas para cada una. Se secaron y analizaron las muestras para determinar su contenido en NO3N. Los niveles de NO3N en los peciolos estuvieron estrechamente relacionados a las dosis de nitrógeno independientemente del cultivar, temporada y sistema de cultivo. Las diferencias entre tratamientos y el contenido de NO3N variaron sustancialmente conforme avanzaba la temporada de cultivo, con niveles de NO3N en los peciolos declinando rápidamente en las parcelas no fertilizadas conforme las plantas envejecían.

Los niveles de NO3N en los peciolos fueron más altos a media temporada a continuatión de trebol rojo que a continuación de los pequeños granos.

Lo más apropiado es tomar las muestras a los 50 a 60 días después de la siembra (DDS) como un medio para programar la aplicación de nitrógeno suplementario. A los 50 DDS los niveles críticos de NNO3N en los peciolos fueron 1,6 y 1,7% para Russet Burbank y Shepody, respectivamente. Los niveles de NO3N en los peciolos, por encima de 2,2%, a los 50 DDS, correspondieron a rendimientos más bajos de Russet Burbank en comparación con los rendimientos obtenidos cuando los niveles de NO3N en los peciolos fueron de 1,6 a 2,2%. El muestreo de NO3N en los peciolos podría ser particularmente util como diagnóstico en las estrategias de manejo que hacen uso máximo de residuos de cultivos anteriores, enmiendas orgánicas y reservas del suelo, como fuentes de nitrógeno.

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Copyright information

© Springer 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Porter
    • 1
  • J. A. Sisson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant, Soil, and Environmental SciencesUniversity of MaineOrono

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