American Potato Journal

, 65:377 | Cite as

Nitrogen fertilizer efficiencies on potatoes

  • Dale T. Westermann
  • Gale E. Kleinkopf
  • Lynn K. Porter
Article

Abstract

Nitrogen fertilizer efficiencies must be known to successfully apply N fertilizer according to crop growth needs. The objective of this study was to determine the recovery, partitioning, and translocation of N fertilizer applied at different times for potato production. Russet Burbank potatoes were fertilized preplant with15N-depleted ammonium sulfate, and during early and late tuber growth with urea containing K15NO3 in 1978 or (15NH2)2CO in 1980. All N applications increased tuber yields above the control treatments. The N recovery efficiency was 60% for the preplant N application, and over 80% and near 60% for the N applications during tuber growth in 1978 and 1980, respectively. Good agreement was found between the isotope and difference methods of determining N recovery efficiencies. Labeled N was initially concentrated in the stems and leaves, particularly if applied during tuber growth. Over 80% of the assimilated, labeled nitrogen was found in the tubers at the start of plant maturation. These data indicate that a significant improvement in N fertilizer efficiency would result from split N fertilizer applications made according to crop growth needs.

Additional Key Words

Recovery partitioning timing preplant seasonal fertigation petioles Solanum tuberosum translocation 

Compendio

Para una aplicación exitosa del fertilizante nitrogenado se debe conocer la eficacia del mismo, de acuerdo con las necesidades de crecimiento del cultivo. El objectivo de este estudio fue determinar la recuperatión, división, y transporte del fertilizante nitrogenado aplicado en diferentes periodos en la productión de papas. Se fertilizaron papas del cultivar Russet Burbank con sulfato de amonio carente de15N, antes de la siembra, y con úrea conteniendo K15NO3 durante el crecimiento inicial y final de los tuberculos en 1978 o con (15NH2)2CO en 1980. Todas las aplicaciones de N incrementaron los rendimientos en tubérculos por encima de aquellos en los tratamientos testigo. La eficacia en la recuperación del N fue 60% para la aplicación de N anterior a la siembra, y más de 80% y cerca de 60% para las aplicaciones de N durante el crecimiento de los tubérculos, en 1978 y 1980, respectivamente. Se considerró que la eficacia más baja en 1980 fue causada por una deficiencia de P al final de la temporada. Se encontró buena relación entre el método del isótopo y el de las diferencias, para la determinación de la eficacia en la recuperación del N. El N marcado se concentrró inicialmente en los tallos y hojas, principalmente cuando fue aplicado durante el crecimiento del tubérculo. Se econtró en los tubérculos más de 80% del nitrógeno marcado asimilado al inicio de la maduración de las plantas. Estos datos indican que una mejora significativa tendría lugar en la eficacia del fertilizante al dividir las aplicaciones del fertilizante nitrogenado efectuadas de acuerdo con las necesidades de crecimiento del cultivo.

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Copyright information

© Springer 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dale T. Westermann
    • 1
  • Gale E. Kleinkopf
    • 2
  • Lynn K. Porter
    • 3
  1. 1.U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceKimberly
  2. 2.University of Idaho Research and Extension CenterKimberly
  3. 3.U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceFt. Collins

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