Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 365–370 | Cite as

Effects of co-culture and salinity on the growth and agar yield ofGracilaria tenuistipitata varliui Zhanget Xia

  • He Li-hong
  • Wu Madeline
  • Qian Pei-yuan
  • Zhu Ming-yuan


Gracilaria tenuistipitata varLiui were mono-cultivated and co-cultivated withPinctada martensii under high (33) and low (21) salinity conditions in laboratory. The daily growth rate of the alga was determined. Tissue carbon and nitrogen contents, the yield and fractional composition of agar were analyzed. Results showed that: 1.Gracilaria grew better under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was twice that under high salinity conditions. Co-cultivated algae grew faster than mono-cultivated algae under low salinity conditions, the daily growth rate was about 37.6% higher. 2. Compared with mono-cultivated algae, tissue nitrogen contents of co-cultivated algae were higher, while the C:N ratios were much lower. 3. The agar yields of co-cultivated algae were much lower than those of mono-cultivated algae. Agar yield was found to be negatively correlated to the tissue nitrogen contents, and positively correlated to the C:N ratios. 4. The highest fractional yields obtained from co-cultivated algae were extracted with 40% ethanol, while from mono-cultivated algae, the highest fractional yields obtained were extracted with distilled water at room temperature.

Key words

co-culture salinity agar Gracilaria tenuistipitata varliui 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bird, K. T., 1988. Agar production and quality fromGracilaria sp. strain G-16: Effects of environmental factors.Bot. Mar. 31: 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buschmann, A. H., 1996. An introduction to intergrated farming and the use of seaweeds as biofilters.Hydrobiologia 326/327: 59–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Busehmann, A. H., Troell, M., Kautsky, N., et al., 1996. Integrated tank cultivation of salmonids andGrucilaria chilensis (Gracilaria les, Rhodophyta).Hydrobiologia 326/327: 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, Chung-Sing, 1991. The distribution ofGracilaria tenuistipitata varliui at the estuary of Tansui River and its easual relation to salinity tolerance and character of substratum.J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 18(2): 89–96.Google Scholar
  5. Daugherty, B. K., Bird, K. T., 1988. Salinity and temperature effects on agar production fromGracilaria verrucosa Strain G-16.Aquaculture 75: 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deboer, J. A., 1979. Effect of nitrogen enrichment on growth rate and phycocolloid content inGracilaria foliifera andNeoagardhiella baileyi (Florideophyceae).Proc. Int. Seaweed Sym 9: 263–273.Google Scholar
  7. Dubois, Michel, Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K. et al., 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances.Analytical chemistry. 28(3): 350–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haglund, K., Pedersen, M., 1993. Outdoor pond cultivation of the subtropical marine red algaGracilaria tenuistipitata in brackish water in Sweden. Growth, nutrient uptake, co-cultivation with rainbow trout and epiphyte control.J. Applied Phycology 5: 271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hurtado-Ponce, A. Q., Pondevida, H. B., 1997. The interactive effect of environmental factors on the growth, agar yields and quality ofGracilariopsis bailinae (Zhang et xie) cultured in tanks.Bot. Mar. 40: 217–223.Google Scholar
  10. Ji, Minghou, Lahaye, M., Yaphe, W., 1988. Structural studies on agar fractions extracted sequentially from Chinese red seaweeds:Gracilaria sjeostedii, G. textorii andG. salicornia using 13C-NMR spectroscopy.Chinese J. Limnol. Oceanol. 6(2): 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lahaye, M., Rochans, C., Yaphe, W., 1986. A new procedure for determining the heterogencity of agar polymers in the cell walls ofGracilaria spp. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).Can. J. Bot. 64: 579–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lahaye, M., Rochas, C., 1991. Chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of agar.Hydrobiologia 221: 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lewis, R. J., Hanisak, M. D., 1996. Effects of phosphate and nitrate supply on productivity, agar content and physical properties of agar ofGracilaria strain G-16s.J. Appl. Phycol. 8: 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lignell, A., Pedersen, M., 1987. Nitrogen metabolism inGracilaria secundata Harv.Hydrobiologia 151/152: 431–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martinez, L. A., Buschmann, A. H., 1996. Agar yield and quality ofG. chilensis (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in tank culture using fish effluents.Hydrobiologia 326/327: 341–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pei, Luqing, Luo, Qijun, Lin, Xia et al., 1994. A preliminary study on comparison between mixculture and monoculture ofGracilaria.Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology 1: 49–54. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Rotem, Avi, 1986. Effect of controlled environmental conditions on starch and agar contents ofGracilaria sp. (Rhodophyceae).J. Phycol. 22: 117–121.Google Scholar
  18. Ryther, J. H., Corwin, N., DeBush, T. A. et al., 1981. Nitrogen uptake and storage by the red algaGracilaria tikwhiae (McLachlan, 1979).Aquaculture 26: 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang, Huanming, 1994. Research on polycultivating seaweeds together with shrimps. I. Experiments of polycultivatingGracilaria together withMetapenaeus andScylla in fishpond.Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology 3: 52–59. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Wu, Chaoyuan, Li, Renzhi, Lin, Guangheng et al., 1994. Study on the optimum environmental parameters for the growth ofGracilaria tenuistipitata varliui in pond culture.Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica. 25(1): 60–66. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Xie, Yukan, 1995. Pearl Science, Ocean Press, Beijing, China, p. 146–170. (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • He Li-hong
    • 1
  • Wu Madeline
    • 2
  • Qian Pei-yuan
    • 2
  • Zhu Ming-yuan
    • 3
  1. 1.Suzhou UniversitySuzhouChina
  2. 2.Hongkong University of Science and TechnologyHongkongChina
  3. 3.First Institute of OceanologyState Oceanic AdministrationQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations