Journal of Materials Shaping Technology

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 167–177 | Cite as

Improvements to Alexander’s computer model for force and torque calculations in strip rolling processes

  • Devendra Rusia


Increasing competition in the metal industry and advances in technology lead to additional demands for accurate analyses so that better strip quality in terms of gauge and shape at the minimum cost can be obtained. In strip rolling, accurate determination of rolling force, torque, and slip are extremely important to the proper design and control of the whole process. In the present investigation, a computer model is developed for force and torque calculations for hot and cold flat rolling processes based on the enhanced slab method. Alexander’s computer model, which is based on Orowan’s model, is used as a starting point. To develop the present model, improvements are made in Alexander’s model. Further, the present model is verified with the hot strip rolling data and the results are compared with the Sims, Orowan and Pascoe, Ekelund, and Crane and Alexander models. In this paper, improvements to the Alexander model and verification of the modified model with the hot strip rolling data and comparison with the other models are discussed.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    D. Rusia, “Review and Evaluation of Different Methods for Force and Torque Calculations in the Strip Rolling Process,”Journal of Materials Shaping Technology, in press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.M. Alexander, “On the Theory of Rolling,”Proc. Roy. Soc. London A., 972, 326, 535–536.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.M. Alexander, R.C. Brewer, and G.W. Rowe, “Manufacturing Technology—Vol. 2: Engineering Processes,” Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Orowan, “The Calculation of Roll Pressure in Hot and Cold Flat Rolling,”Proc. I. Mech. E., 1943, 150, p. 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Christensen, H. Everfelt, N. Bay, and T. Wanheim, “Pressure Distribution in Plate Rolling,”Ann CIRP, 1986, 35, pp. 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.C. Chen and S. Kobayashi, “Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Analysis of Ring Compression, Application of Numerical Methods to Forming Processes,” AMD, 1978, Vol. 28, p. 163.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Ford, “The Theory of Rolling,”Metallurgical Reviews, 1957, 1, p. 2.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Ford, F. Ellis, and D.R. Bland, “Cold Rolling with Strip-Tension. Part 1. A New Approximate Method of Calculation and a Comparison with Other Methods,”J.I.S.I., 1951, 168, p. 57.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.S. Gunasekera and J.M. Alexander, “Analysis of Rolling,”Ann CIRP, 1987, 36, pp. 203–206.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology), “AISI Collaborative Technology Project on Measurement of Flow Stress at High Temperature and Strain Rates: Steel 1—Flow Stress Measurements,” June 1988.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E.C. Larke,The Rolling of Strip, Sheet, and Plate, Chapman and Hall, London, 1957.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Ford and J.M. Alexander, “Simplified Hot-Rolling Equations,”J. Inst. Metals 1963, vol. 92, pp. 397–404.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.B. Sims, “The Calculation of Roll Force and Torque in Hot Rolling Mills,”Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 1954, vol. 168, pp. 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Orowan and K.J. Pascoe, “A Simple Method of Calculating Roll Pressure and Power Consumption in Hot Flat Rolling,” Special Report No. 34, The Iron and Steel Institute, 4, Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.I., 1946.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Ekelund, “Analysis of Factors Influencing Rolling Pressure and Power Consumption in the Hot Rolling of Steel,”Steel, 1933, vol. 93, Aug. pp. 27 and 44; Sept. pp. 29, 32, 38, and 71; Oct. pp. 45.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W.L. Roberts,Hot Rolling of Steel, Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1983.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V.A. Jaronkov and R.C. Chaturvedi,Rolling of Metals, Yantrik, Lucknow, Bombay, 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Devendra Rusia
    • 1
  1. 1.Inland Steel CompanyResearch LaboratoriesEast ChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations