Journal of Materials Shaping Technology

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 193–206 | Cite as

A design approach for intermediate die shapes in plane strain forgings

  • S. S. Lanka
  • R. Srinivasan
  • R. V. Grandhi

Abstract

A new technique has been developed for the design of die shapes in the plane strain forging process. The objective of this research work is to develop a design procedure to obtain the number of stages and the shape of each die for manufacturing a desired product. Metal flow during the forging is considered in the design of the intermediate die shapes in multistage forgings. The two approaches developed for the preform shapes design are conformal mapping techniques and ideal material flow simulations. The forging process is simulated using a nonlinear rigid visco plastic finite element program ALPID (analysis of large plastic incremental deformation). Staging criteria is developed from the results of the forging simulation and the number of stages are based on the stress ratio parameterg (mean stress/effective stress) and strain rate gradient information. This paper presents two examples of forgings to demonstrate an optimal die shape design methodology.

Nomenclature

i

number of points on the perimeter of the shape

z

stroke or time

xpi

ithx coordinate of the preform atz = 0

ypi

ithy coordinate of the preform atz = 0

xfi

ithx coordinate of the final form atz = 1

yfi

ithy coordinate of the final form atz = 1

Af

area of the final shape

A

area of the intermediate shape

x

correction factor inx coordinate

y

correction factor iny coordinate

h

height of the rib of H section

b

width of the rib of H section

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N. Akgerman, J. R. Becker, and T. Altan, “Preform Design in Closed-Die Forging,”Mettalurgia and Metal Forging, May 1973, pp. 135–138.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. C. Jones,Drop Forging Die Design, The Association of Engineering and Shipbuilding Draftmen, Richmond, Survey (1965).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. K. Biswas and W. A. Knight, “Towards an Integrated Design and Production System for Hot Forging Dies,”Int. J. Prod. Res., 1979, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 23–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. N. Bruchanov and S. K. Rebelski, “Closed Die Forging and Warmpressing” VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin (1955).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Lange, “Closed Die Forging in Steel,” Springer Verlag, Berlin (1958).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Chamouarnd, “Estampage et Forge,” Dunod Paris (1964).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. B. Yu and T. A. Dean, “A Practical Computer-Aided Approach to Mould Design for Axisymmetric Forging Die Cavities,”Intl. J. Mach. Tool Design, 1985, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. M. Hwang and S. Kobayashi, “Preform Design in Plane-Strain Rolling by the Finite Element Method,”Intl. J. Mach. Tool Design Res., 1984, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. M. Hwang and S. Kobayashi, “Preform Design in Shell Nosing at Elevated Temperatures,”Intl. J. Mach. Tools Manufact., 1987, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. J. Park, N. Rebelo, and S. Kobayashi, “A New Approach to Preform Design in Metal Forming with Finite Element Method,”Intl. J. Mach. Tool Design Res., 1983, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Duggirala and A. Badaway, “Finite Element Method Approach to Forging Process Design,”J. of Mat. Shaping Tech., 1985, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 81–89.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Duggirala, “Design of Forging Dies for Forming Flashless Ring Gear Blanks using Finite Element Methods,”J. Mat. Shaping Tech., 1988, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Duggirala, “Using the Finite Element Method in Metalforming Processes,”JOM, 1990, Feb., pp. 24–27.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. W. Kim and H. Y. Kim, “Preform Design for Axisymmetric Closed-Die Forging by the Upper Bound Elemental Technique (UBET),” ASME Winter Annual Meeting 1990, Dallas, Texas, Nov., pp. 155–164.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. S. Gunasekera, H. L. Gegel, J. C. Malas, S. M. Doraivelu, and D. Barker, “CAD/CAM of Streamlined Extrusion Dies,”J. Applied Metal Working, July 1985, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 43–49.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. S. Gunasekera and S. Hoshino, “Extrusion of Noncircular Sections Through Shaped Dies,”Annals Int. Inst. Prod. Eng. Res., (CIRP), 1980, Vol. 29, pp. 141.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. S. Gunasekera and S. Hoshino, “Analysis of Extrusion of Polygonal Sections Through Streamlined Dies,”ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, Aug. 1985, Vol. 107, pp. 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Altan, S.-I. Oh, and H. L. Gegel,Metal Forming, Fundamentals, and Applications, 1st ed., American Society for Metals, Metals, Park, Ohio.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Kobayashi, S.-I. Oh, and T. Altan,Metals Forming and Finite-Element Methods, Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 309–314.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Lanka
    • 1
  • R. Srinivasan
    • 1
  • R. V. Grandhi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringWright State UniversityDayton

Personalised recommendations