Journal of Materials for Energy Systems

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 36–42 | Cite as

The effects of processing on delta ferrite measurement

  • L. A. Brough


The measurement of delta ferrite in austenitic stainless steel welds is commonly done in the shop with magnetic instruments. One problem with this indirect approach is that the magnetic measuring device will respond not only to delta ferrite but to all magnetic influences. This study describes the observed effects of rapid cooling from the liquid phase, room temperature distortion (cold working) and heat-treatment on the measurement of ferrite in types 308L, 309L, 316L and 347 stainless steel weld metal. A comparison is drawn between the measured values and those calculated from the chemical analysis, and reasons for the difference are suggested.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    JA. Brooks and F. J. Lambert, Jr.: “The Effects of Phosphorous, Sulfur and Ferrite Content on Weld Cracking of Type 309 Stainless Steel,” Welding Research Supplement,Welding Journal, May 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Control of Ferrite Content in Stainless Steel Weld Metal,”Regulatory Guide 1.31, Rev. 3, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, ASME, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. S. U. Laine: “A High Speed Determination of the Volume Fraction of Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steel by EDXRD,”Journal of Phvsics F: Metal Physics, (U.K.), 1978, vol. 8, no. 7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. P. S. Gill, R.D. Dayal and J.B. Gnanamoorthy: “Estimation of Delta Ferrite in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weldments by an Electrochemical Technique,” Welding Research Supplement,Welding Journal, December 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. G. Thomas: “The Effect of Delta Ferrite on the Creep Rupture Properties of Austenitic Weld Metals,” Welding Research Supplement,Welding Journal, March 1978.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. P. Edmonds, D. M. Vandergriff and R. J. Gray: “Effect of Delta Ferrite Content on the Mechanical Properties of E308-16 Stainless Steel Weld Metal-III,”Supplemental Studies ASME MPC-9, December 1978.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Masayoshi Hasegawa and Motoaki Osawa: “Anamolous Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Exposed to Hydrogen at High Temperatures and Pressure,”Corrosion, February 1980, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 67–73.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. V. Laptev and D. R. F. West: “Structure and Strength of Certain Austenitic Stainless Steels after Plastic Deformation and Subsequent Annealing,”Metals Technology, March 1977.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    American Society for Testing Materials, “Standard Recommended Practice for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count,” ASTM E-562-76, 1980.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. A. Ratz and R.B. Gunia: “How Accurate are Methods for Measuring Ferrite?”Metal Progress, pp. 76–80, January 1969.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J.H. Dumbelton and J. A. Douthett: “The Unlubricated Adhesive Wear Resistance of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel Containing Silicon,”Wear, 1977, vol. 42, pp. 305–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F. C. Hull: “Delta Ferrite and Martensite Formation in Stainless Steel,” Welding Research Supplement,Welding Journal, May 1973.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tryggve Angel: “Formation of Martensite in Austenitic Stainless Steel,”Journal of the Iron & Steel Institute, May 1954.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.D. Thomas, Jr: “Effect of Delta Ferrite Content of E308L-16 Stainless Steel Weld Metal—1.,”Weld Metal Preparation, ASME, MPC-9, December 1978.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. J. Moorehead and D. A. Canonico: “Microstructural Effects of High Temperature Thermal Treatment in Fe-Cr-Ni Austenitic Stainless Steels,”Microstructural Science, International Metallographic Society, 1976, vol. IV, pp. 347–66.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    American Welding Society, “Specification for Corrosion Resisting Chromium and Chromium Nickel Steel Covered Welding Electrodes,” Specification A5. 4–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Society for Metals 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Brough
    • 1
  1. 1.McDermott, Inc.Babcock and Wilcox, Diamond Power Specialty CompanyLancaster

Personalised recommendations