Advertisement

Folia Microbiologica

, 44:77 | Cite as

Fungal utilization of organophosphate pesticides and their degradation byAspergillus flavus andA. sydowii in soil

  • H. A. H. Hasan
Papers

Abstract

Fungal species were isolated which utilize organophosphate pesticides,viz. phosphorothioic (pirimiphos-methyl and pyrazophos), phosphorodithioic (dimethoate and malathion), phosphonic (lancer) and phosphoric (profenfos) acid derivatives. Pesticide degradation was studiedin vitro andin vivo (soil).Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. sydowii, A. terreus, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium oxysporum andPenicillium chrysogenum were isolated from pesticide-treated wheat straw. The number ofA. sydowii colonies was significantly promoted by 1 mmol/L pirimiphos-methyl, pyrazophos, lancer, dimethoate and malathion when used as phosphorus sources and by pirimiphos-methyl and pyrazophos when used as carbon sources. The number ofA. flavus colonies increased with 0.5 mmol/L lancer and malathion used as the only carbon sources.A. sydowii, A. niger, A. flavus, E. nidulans andF. oxysporum grew on, and utilized, 5 pesticides as phosphorus source and showed more than 50% mass growth.A. sydowii, A. flavus andF. oxysporum phosphatase hydrolyzed the pesticides suggesting that these species are important pesticide degraders.A. sydowii produced higher amounts of the phosphatase thanA. flavus andF. oxysporum. The enzyme was highly active against pyrazophos, lancer and malathion used as the only sources of organic phosphate.A. flavus andA. sydowii phosphatases efficiently hydrolyzed pesticides at 300 ppm in soil, the degradation at 1000 ppm was lower. Mineralization of 1000 ppm pesticides in soil amended with wheat straw was higher than in nonamended soil. All added pesticides except profenfos were degraded within 3 weeks. Lyophilized adapted biomass ofA. flavus andA. sydowii could thus be used for field biodegradation of these pesticides.

Keywords

Wheat Straw Malathion Dimethoate Organophosphate Pesticide Nonsterile Soil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abdell-Mallek A.Y.: Effect of some pesticides on cellulose decomposing fungi in Egyptial soil.PhD Thesis. Faculty of Science, Assiut University, (Egypt) 1984.Google Scholar
  2. Booth C.:Fusarium Laboratory Guide to the Identification of the Major Species. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey (England) 1977.Google Scholar
  3. Brannon C.A., Sommers L.E.: Stability and mineralization of organic phosphorus incorporated into model humic polymers.Soil Biol. Biochem. 17, 221–227 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Čerňáková M.: Biological degradation of isoproturon, chlortoluron and fenitrothion.Folia Microbiol. 40, 201–206 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Čerňáková M., Kurucová M., Fuchsová D.: Effect of the insecticide actellic on soil microorganisms and their activity.Folia Microbiol. 37, 219–222 (1992).Google Scholar
  6. Christensen M., Raper K.P.: Synoptic key toAspergillus nidulans group species andEmericella species.Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 71, 177–191 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Famurewa O., Olutiola P.O.: Acid phosphatase synthesis inAspergillus flavus.Folia Microbiol. 39, 475–480 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hasan H.A.H.: Selective effect of some pesticides on mycoflora and mycotoxins production in corn grains and sunflower seeds.MSc Thesis. Faculty of Science, Assiut University (Egypt) 1988.Google Scholar
  9. Hasan H.A.H., Omar S.A.: Selective effect of organophosphate insecticides on metabolic activities and aflatoxins biosynthesis by twoAspergillus spp.Cryptogamie Mycol. 14, 185–193 (1993).Google Scholar
  10. Ismail B.S., Kader A.J., Omar O.: Effect of glyphosate on cellulose decomposition in two soils.Folia Microbiol. 40, 499–502 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnson L.F., Curl E.A.:Method for Research on Ecology of Soil-Borne Pathogens. Burgess Publ. Co., Minneapolis 1972.Google Scholar
  12. McGrath J.W., Ternan N.G., Quinn J.P.: Utilization of organophosphonates by environmental microorganisms.Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24, 69–73 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Olsen S.R., Cole C.V., Watanabe F.S., Dean L.A.: Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U.S. Department of Agriculture Circular 939 (1954), inA Text-Book of Soil Analysis (T.C. Baruah, H.P. Barthakur, Eds); Delhi 1997.Google Scholar
  14. Pitt J.I.:A Laboratory Guide to Common Penicillium Species. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Food Research Australia (1985).Google Scholar
  15. Raper K.B., Fennell D.I.:The Genus Aspergillus. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore (USA) 1965.Google Scholar
  16. Schowanek D., Verstraete W.: Phosphonate utilization by bacterial cultures and enrichments from environmental samples.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 2501–2510 (1990).Google Scholar
  17. Shishkina V.N., Trotsenko Y.A.: Metabolism of inorganic polyphosphate and pyrophosphates in methanotrophic bacteria.Microbiology 59, 357–361 (1991).Google Scholar
  18. Wanner B.L.: Molecular genetics of carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage in bacteria.Biodegradation 5, 175–184 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zboinska E., Maliszewska I., Lejczak B., Kafarski P.: Degradation of organophosphonates byPenicillium citrinum.Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 269–272 (1992).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. A. H. Hasan
    • 1
  1. 1.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceAssiut UniversityEgypt

Personalised recommendations