The use of salicylate hydroxylation to detect hydroxyl radical generation in ischemic and traumatic brain injury
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Oxygen free radicals have been implicated as a causal factor in posttraumatic neuronal cell loss following cerebral ischemia and head injury. The conversion of salicylate to dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) in vivo was employed to study the formation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) following central nervous system (CNS) injury. Bilateral carotid occlusion (BCO) in gerbils and concussive head trauma in mice were selected as models of brain injury. The lipid peroxidation inhibitor, tirilazad mesylate (U-74006F), was tested for its ability to attenuate hydroxyl radical formation in these models. In addition, U-74006F was studied as a scavenger of hydroxyl radical in an in vitro assay based on the Fenton reaction.
For in vivo experimentation, hydroxyl radical formation was expressed as the ratio of DHBA to salicylate (DHBA/SAL) measured in brain. In the BCO model, hydroxyl radical formation increased in whole brain with 10 min of occlusion followed by 1 min of reperfusion. DHBA/SAL was also found to increase in the mouse head injury model at 1 h postinjury. In both models, U-74006F (1 or 10 mg/kg) blocked the increase in DHBA/SAL following injury. In vitro, reaction of U-74006F with hydroxyl radical gave a product with a mol wt that was 16 greater than U-74006F, indicative of hydroxyl radical scavenging. We speculate that U-74006F may function by blocking oxyradical-dependent cell damage, and thereby maintaining free iron (which catalyzes hydroxyl radical formation) concentrations at normal levels.
Index EntriesTirilazad mesylate hydroxyl radical ischemic brain injury traumatic brain injury radical scavenger salicylate hydroxylation
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