Striatal dopamine depletion, tremors, and hypokinesia following the intracranial injection ofS-adenosylmethionine
A possible role of hypermethylation in parkinsonism
The major symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) are tremors, hypokinesia, rigidity, and abnormal posture, caused by the degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and deficiency of DA in the neostriatal DA terminals. Norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) levels in the neostriatum and tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin pigments in the substantia nigra are also decreased, and brain cholinergic activity is increased. The cause of PD is unknown, but PD is an age-related disorder, suggesting that changes that occur during the aging process may help to precipitate PD. Methylation increases in aging animals. Increased methylation can deplete DA, NE, and 5-HT; increase acetylcholine; and cause hypokinesia and tremors. These effects are similar to changes seen in PD, and interestingly also, they are similar to some of the changes that are associated with the aging process. It is suggested, therefore, that increased methylation may be an inducing factor in parkinsonism. Accordingly, the effects of an increase in methylation in the brain of rats were studied.S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the limiting factor in the methylation process, was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats. Specific behavioral changes that resemble changes seen in PD were investigated. The results showed that AdoMet caused tremors, rigidity, hypokinesia, and depleted DA. The hypokinetic effects of a single dose of AdoMet lasted for about 90 min. AdoMet has a dose-dependent hypokinetic effect. A dose of 9.4 nmol reduced movement time (MT) by 68.9% and increased rest time (RT) by 20.7%, and a dose of 400 mnol reduced MT by 92.4% and increased RT by 27.6%. The normethyl analog of AdoMet,S-adenosylhomocysteine, did not cause hypokinesia or tremors, but it blocked the AdoMet-induced motor effects.l-dopa, the precursor of DA, also blocked the AdoMet-induced motor effects. These data suggest that the methyl group of AdoMet as well as DA depletion are involved in the AdoMet-induced motor effects. A dose of 0.65 μmol of AdoMet depleted DA in the ipsilateral caudate nucleus (CN) or neostriatum by 50.1%, and DA in the contralateral CN was reduced by 9.3%. Double the dose of AdoMet did not increase the depletion of DA on the ipsilateral CN, but DA in the contralateral CN was decreased by 26.3%. Taken together, the results suggest that increased methylation may contribute to the symptoms of PD.
Index EntriesParkinson disease methylation S-adenosyl-l-methionine dopamine tremor tyrosine hydroxylase neuronal degeneration
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