Advertisement

Urinary cadmium levels during pregnancy and postpartum

A longitudinal study
  • Magnolia Hernandez
  • Marta Schuhmacher
  • Juan D. Fernandez
  • Jose L. Domingo
  • Juan M. Llobet
Original Articles

Abstract

It is well established that pregnancy induces physiological, metabolical and hormonal changes. As a consequence, trace metal metabolism can be affected. The aim of the present study was to assess the urinary cadmium levels in women during gestation and postpartum. The survey was conducted in a group of nonoccupationally cadmium-exposed women from Southern Catalonia (NE, Spain). Urine samples were obtained before pregnancy, during the 6th, 10th, 26th, and 30th wk of gestation, as well as during the 5th and 24th wk after delivery. Urinary cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations of zinc and copper in plasma were also measured. Moreover, to assess the effect of the diet during pregnancy, dietary ingestions of zinc, iron, and calcium were also determined. A significant decrease of plasma zinc levels could be observed during the last two trimesters of pregnancy, while plasma copper concentrations significantly increased during the same period. Urinary cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 3.79 μg/g creatinine (geometric mean 0.49±2.26 μg/g creatinine). No significant changes in urinary cadmium concentrations during pregnancy and postpartum could be observed.

Index Entries

Pregnant women urinary cadmium dietary intake plasma zinc plasma copper 

References

  1. 1.
    R. Newhook, G. Long, M. E. Meek, R. G. Liteplo, P. Chan, J. Argo, and W. Dormer, Cadmium and its compounds: evaluation of risks to health from environmental exposure in Canada.Environ. Carcino. Ecotox. Revs. C12, 195–217 (1994).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. P. Waalkes and S. Rehm, Cadmium and prostate cancer,J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 43, 251–269 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Piscator, Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact on environmental changes,Environ. Health Perspect. 63, 127–132 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Hochi, T. Kido, K. Nogawa, H. Kito, and Z. A. Shaikh, Dose-response relationship between total cadmium intake and prevalence of renal dysfunction using general linear models.J. Appl. Toxicol. 15, 109–116 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. R. Lauwerys, A. M. Bernard, J. P. Buchet, and H. A. Roels, Assessment of the health impact of environmental exposure to cadmium: contribution of the epidemiologic studies carried out in Belgium,Environ. Res. 62, 200–206 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Schuhmacher, M. A. Bosque, J. L. Domingo, and J. Corbella, Lead and cadmium concentrations in autopsy tissues of inhabitants of Tarragona Province, Spain,Trace Elem. Med. 10, 115–119 (1993).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Schweinsberg and L. von Karsa, Heavy metal concentrations in humans,Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 95C, 117–123 (1990).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Korpela, R. Loueniva, E. Yrjanheikki, and A. Kauppila, Lead and cadmium concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, placenta, and amniotic membranes,Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155, 1086–1089 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. R. Kuhnert, P. M. Kuhnert, and T. J. Zarlingo, Associations between placental cadmium and zinc, age and parity in pregnant women who smoke,Obstet. Gynecol. 71, 67–70 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. L. Domingo, Metal-induced developmental toxicity in mammals: a review,J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 42, 123–141 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    N. Fréry, C. Nessmann, F. Girard, J. Lafond, T. Moreau, P. Blot, J. Lellouch, and G. Huel, Environmental exposure to cadmium and human birthweight,Toxicology 79, 109–118 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. van der Voet, L. van Egmond, R. Kleijn, and G. Huppes, Cadmium in the European Community: a policy-oriented analysis,Waste Managem. Res. 12, 507–526 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. E. Kowal, D. E. Johnson, D. F. Kraemer, and H. R. Pahren, Normal levels of cadmium in diet, urine, blood, and tissues of inhabitants of the United States.J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 5, 995–1014 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Abe, T. Watanabe, and M. Ikeda, Cadmium levels in the urine of female farmers in nonpolluted areas in Japan.J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 18, 357–367 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    T. Kawada, R. R. Shinmyo, and S. Suzuki, Urinary cadmium and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase excretion of inhabitants living in a cadmium-polluted area,Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 63, 541–546 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Schuhmacher, M. A. Bosque, J. L. Domingo, and J. Corbella, Urinary cadmium levels in an unexposed population: relationship to age, sex, and smoking and drinking habits,Trace Elem. Electrol. 11, 38–41 (1994).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Schuhmacher, M. A. Bosque, J. L. Domingo, and J. Corbella, Effects of chronic lead and cadmium exposure on blood pressure in occupationally exposed workers,Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 41, 269–278 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    I. Baranowska, Lead and cadmium in human placentas and maternal and neonatal blood (in a heavily polluted area) measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry,Occup. Environ. Med. 52, 229–232 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Hernández, M. Schuhmacher, J. D. Fernández, J. L. Domingo, and J. Corbella, A longitudinal study of lead mobilization during pregnancy: concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Alessio, A. Dell'Orto, G. Calzaferri, M. Buscaglia, G. Motta, and M. Rizzo, Cadmium concentrations in blood and urine of pregnant women at delivery and their offspring,Sci. Total Environ. 34, 261–266 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Bonithon-Kopp, G. Huel, C. Grasmick, H. Sarmini, and T. Moureau, Effects of pregnancy on the inter-individual variations in blood levels of lead, cadmium and mercury,Biol. Res. Pregnancy Perinatol. 7, 37–42 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Roels, R. R. Lauwerys, J. P. Buchet, A. Bernard, J. S. Garvey, and H. J. Linton, Significance of urinary metallothionein in workers exposed to cadmium,Int. Arch. Occup. Health 52, 159–166 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. M. Chan, Y. H. Tamura, M. G. Cherian, and R. A. Goyer, Pregnancy associated changes in plasma metallothionein concentration and renal cadmium accumulation in rats.Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 202, 420–427 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. L. Geller and D. R. Winge, Metal binding sites of rat liver Cu-thionein,Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 213, 109–117 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Mitane, C. Tohyama, and H. Saito, The role of metallothionein in the elevated excretion of copper in urine from people living in a cadmium-polluted area,Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 6, 285–291 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Suzuki, H. Tamagawa, K. Takahashi K, and N. Shimojo, Pregnancy-induced mobilization of copper and zinc bound to renal metallothionein in cadmium-loaded rats,Toxicology 60, 199–210 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. W. Solomons Biological availability of zinc in humans.Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35, 1048–1075 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magnolia Hernandez
    • 1
  • Marta Schuhmacher
    • 1
  • Juan D. Fernandez
    • 1
  • Jose L. Domingo
    • 1
  • Juan M. Llobet
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Toxicology and Biochemistry, School of Medicine“Rovira i Virgili” UniversityReusSpain

Personalised recommendations