Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 235–247 | Cite as

Influence of season and diet on liver and kidney content of essential elements and heavy metals in svalbard reindeer

  • Berit Borch-Iohnsen
  • Kjell J. Nilssen
  • Gunnar Norheim
Original Articles


Samples of liver (n=78) and kidney (n=60) from Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik) collected at four different seasons in Svalbard were analysed for their content of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se. The study shows that when animals are exposed to large seasonal variations in both the quality and quantity of food, it is crucial to relate element concentrations to the physiological condition of the animal, e.g., to look at seasonal fluctuations in the total element content of the different organs.

Index Entries

Cadmium copper kidney lead liver mangenese selenium Svalbard reindeer zinc 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B. Borch-Iohnsen and K. J. Nilssen, Seasonal iron overload in Svalbard reindeer liver.J. Nutr. 117, 2072–2078 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Borch-Iohnsen, K. S. Olsson, and K. J. Nilssen, Seasonal siderosis in Svalbard reindeer.Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 526, 355–356 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Staaland, I. Brattbakk, K. Ekern, and K. Kildemo, Chemical composition of reindeer forage plants in Svalbard and Norway.Holarc. Ecol. 6, 109–122 (1983).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Staaland, Trace elements in the alimentary tract of Svalbard reindeer.Rangifer 5, 15–21 (1985).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Reimers and Ø. Nordby, Relationship between age and tooth cementum layers in Norwegian reindeer.J. Wildl. Manage 32, 957–961 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Norheim, High productivity analyses of elements in foods using automated digestion and atomic absorption techniques, inProc. 5th Europ. Conf. Food Chem. France, Vol. 2, pp. 730–734 (1989).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Norheim and A. Haugen, Precise determination of selenium in tissues using automated wet digestion and an automated hydride generator-atomic absorption spectroscopy system.Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 59 (Suppl VII), 610–612 (1986).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Reimers, T. Ringberg, and R. Sørumg→rd Body composition of Svalbard reindeer.Can. J. Zool. 60, 1812–1821 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. W. Solomons, Physiological interaction of minerals, inNutrient Interactions, C. E. Bodwell and J. W. Erdman, eds. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 115–148 (1988).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. J. Cousins, Absorption, transport, and hepatic metabolism of copper and zinc: Special reference to metallothionein and ceruloplasmin.Physiol. Rev. 65, 238–309 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Steinnes, Atmospheric fallout of heavy metals in Northern Norway, inExcess and Deficiency of Trace Elements in Relation to Human and Animal Health in Arctic and Subarctic Regions, J. L→., ed., Norweg. Acad. Sci. Lett., Oslo, pp. 33–39 (1990).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Fröslie, G. Norheim, J. P. Rambæk, and E. Steinnes, Levels of trace elements in Norwegia moose, reindeer and red deer in relation to atmospheric deposition.Acta Vet. Scand.,25, 333–345 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Fröslie, Trace elements in reindeer and sheep from Sör-Varanger, Finnmark A preliminary study, inExcess and Deficiency of Trace Elements in Relation to Human and Animal Health in Arctic and Subarctic Regions, J. L→g, ed., Norweg. Acad. Sci. Lett., Oslo, pp. 200–201 (1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berit Borch-Iohnsen
    • 1
  • Kjell J. Nilssen
    • 2
  • Gunnar Norheim
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Nutrition Research, School of MedicineUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Institute of ZoophysiologyUniversity of TrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations