Advertisement

Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 66, Issue 1–3, pp 343–357 | Cite as

Comparative toxicology of borates

  • Susan A. Hubbard
Article

Abstract

Inorganic borates, including boric acid, Na, ammonium, K, and Zn borates generally display low acute toxicity orally, dermally, and by inhalation. They are either not irritant or mild skin and eye irritants. Exceptions owing to physiochemical properties do occur.

Longer-term toxicological studies have been reported mainly on boric acid or borax where the properties are generally similar on an equivalent boron (B) basis. The critical effects in several species are male reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity. The doses that cause these effects are far higher than any levels to which the human population could be exposed. Humans would need to consume daily some 3.3 g of boric acid (or 5.0 g borax) to ingest the same dose level as the lowest animal NOAEL. No effects on fertility were seen in a population of workers exposed to borates or to a population exposed to high environmental borate levels.

There is remarkable similarity in the toxicological effects of boric acid and borax across different species. Other inorganic borates that simply dissociate to boric acid are expected to display similar toxicity, whereas those that do not dissociate simply to boric acid may display a different toxicological profile.

Index entries

Borates boric acid borax reproductive toxicity developmental toxicity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    B. D. Culver, R. G. Smith, R. J. Brotherton, P. L. Strong, and T. M. Gray, Boron, inPatty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th ed., vol. 2F, G. D. Clayton and F. E. Clayton, eds., John Wiley, New York, pp. 4411–4448 (1994).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Toxicology and reproductive toxicity of some inorganic borates and risk assessment for man, Technical Report No. 63 (1995).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. J. Murray, A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water,Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 22, 221–230 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. A. Moore, and an Expert Scientific Committee, Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human development and reproductive toxicity of agents,Reprod. Toxicol. 11, 123–160 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. A. Hubbard and F. M. Sullivan, Toxicological effects of inorganic boron compounds in animals: A review of the literature,J. Trace Elements Exp. Med. 9, 165–173 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. J. Murray,Biol. Trace Elements Res. 66, 331–342 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. H. Draize and E. A. Kelley, The urinary excretion of boric acid preparations following oral administration and topical applications to intact and damaged skin of rabbits,Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1, 267–276 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Job, Absorption and excretion of orally administered boron,Z. Angew Bader-Klimaheilkunde 20, 137–142 (1973).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. F. Brown, M. E. McCormick, D. R. Morris, and L. K. Zeringue, Effects of dietary boron on mineral balance in sheep,Nutr. Res. 9, 503–512 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. W. Ku, R. E. Chapin, R. F. Moseman, R. E. Brink, K. D. Pierce, and K. Y. Adams, Tissue disposition of boron in male Fischer rats,Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 111, 145–151 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. S. Schou, J. A. Jansen, and B. Aggerbeck, Human pharmacokinetics and safety of boric acid,Arch. Toxicol. 7, 232–235 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. W. Ku, R. E. Chapin, R. N. Wine, and B. C. Gladen, Testicular toxicity of boric acid (BA): Relationship of dose to lesion development and recovery in the F344 rat,Reprod. Toxicol. 7, 305–319 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. A. Jansen, J. Anderson, and J. S. Schou, Boric acid single dose pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration to man,Arch. Toxicol. 55, 64–67 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. L. Litovitz, W. Klein-Schwartz, G. M. Oderda, and B. F. Schmitz, Clinical manifestations of toxicity in a series of 784 boric acid ingestions,Am. J. Emerg. Med. 6, 209–213 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. Friis-Hansen, B. Aggerbeck, and J. A. Jansen, Unaffected blood boron levels in new-born infants treated with a boric acid ointment,Food. Chem. Toxicol. 20, 451–454 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. H. Beyer, W. F. Bergfeld, W. O. Berndt, R. K. Boutwell, W. W. Carlton, D. K. Hoffmann, et al., FDA Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, Final report on the safety assessment of sodium borate and boric acid,J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 2, 87–125 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Maibach, this vol.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. H. Nielsen, Percutaneous absorption of boric acid form boron-containing preparations in rats,Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol. 28, 413–424 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. J. Vignec and R. Ellis, Inabsorbability of boric acid in infant powder,Am. J. Dis. Child 88, 72–80 (1954).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Stüttgen, T. Siebel, and B. Aggerbeck, Absorption of boric acid through human skin depending on the type of vehicle,Arch. Dermatol. Res. 272, 21–29 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. J. Weir and R. S. Fisher, Toxicological studies on borax and boric acid,Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 23, 351–364 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. C. Pfeiffer, L. F. Hallman, and I. Gersh, Boric acid ointment. A study of possible intoxication in the treatment of burns,J. Am. Med. Assoc. 128, 266–274 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. L. Reagan and P. L. Becci, Acute oral LD50 study of 20 mule team lot no. USB-12-84 sodium tetraborate pentahydrate in New Zealand white rabbits, Food and Drug Research Laboratories Inc., Waverly, NY 14892. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1985).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. M. Denton, Anhydrous boric acid. Acute oral study in the rat. Corning Hazleton (Europe), Harrogate, N Yorkshire, HG3 1PY, Study No. 1341/9-1032 and 1341—1032. Unpublished Report to Borax Europe Limited (1996).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. M. Denton,Dehybor anhydrous Borax. Acute oral study in the rat. Corning Hazleton (Europe), Harrogate, N Yorkshire, HG3 1PY, Study. No 1341–1032 and 1341/6-1032. Unpublished Report to Borax Europe Limited (1996).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. M. Denton, Sodium metaborate 4-mol. Acute oral study in the rat. Corning Hazleton (Europe), Harrogate, N Yorkshire, HG3 1PY, Study No. 1341/5-1032 and 1341/8-1032. Unpublished Report to Borax Europe Limited (1996).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. L. Doyle, Acute oral administration of 8-mol sodium metaborate to rats. Study. No N-118. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to US Borax (1963).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. M. Chesbro, Letter from Bio-Research Laboratories, Berkley, CA. Oral toxicity and ocular irritation studies on a number of borates. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1956).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. J. Shipp, C. F. Folk, and J. A. Young, Acute oral toxicity study of TS-7504-14-1 potassium tetraborate granular, Study No. 75-550-21. International Bio-Research, Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1975).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. L. Doyle, Acute oral toxicity in rabbits of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Study No. 88-3197-21 Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1989).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Daniels, M. J. Thomas, and R. H. Teske, Acute toxicity and irritation studies on zinc borate 2335. Report T-298. Hill Top Research Inc. Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1969).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. R. Cerven, Zinc Borate 4.1.1. Single Dose Oral Toxicity in Rats/LD50. Study No. MB 92-1203 AMB Research Laboratories Ind., Spinnerstown, PA 18968. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1992).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Momma, K. TakActa, Y. Suzuki, and M. Tobe, Acute oral toxicity and ocular irritation of chemicals in bleaching agents,J. Food Hygienic Soc. Jpn. 27, 553–560 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. B. Sisk, B. M. Colvin, A. Merrill, K. Bondari, and J. M. Bowen, Experimental acute inorganic toxicosis in the goat: effects on serum chemistry and CSF biogenic amines,Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 32, 205–211 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. B. Sisk, B. M. Colvin, and C. R. Bridges, Acute fatal illness in cattle exposed to boron fertilizer,J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 196, 943–945 (1988).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. D. Culver and S. A. Hubbard, Inorganic boron health effects in humans: An aid to risk assessment and clinical judgement,J. Trace Elements Exp. Med. 9, 175–184 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    I. Yoshitaka, N. Fujizuka, T. Toshihiko, K. Shimizu, A. Tuchida, S. Yano, et al., A fatal case of acute boric acid poisoning,Clin. Toxicol. 31, 345–352 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. D. Baker and S. C. Bogema, Ingestion of boric acid by infants,Am. J. Emerg. Med. 4, 358–361 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    G. Wnorowski, Acute inhalation toxicity limit test on boric acid, Study No. 3311. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    G. Wnorowski, Acute inhalation toxicity limit on disodium tetraborate decahydrate, Study No. 3309. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816, Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Wnorowski, Acute inhalation toxicity limit on disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, Study No. 3313. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816, Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. Wnorowski, Acute inhalation toxicity limit on disodium tetraborate pentahydrate, Study No. 3307. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816, Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    S. Blagden, Firebrake 415: acute inhalation toxicity (nose only) study in the rat. Study No. 801/011. SafePharm Laboratories Ltd., UK. Unpublished Report to Borax Europe Ltd. (1996).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. E. Stokinger and C. J. Spiegel, Special materials part A. Inhalation-toxicity studies of boron halides and certain fluorinated hydrocarbons, inPharmacology and Toxicology of Uranium Compounds: Chronic Inhalation and Other Studies, C. Voegtlin and H. C. Hodge, eds., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 2291–2321 (1953).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    E. H. Vernot, J. D. MacEwen, C. C. Haun, and E. R. Kinkead, Acute toxicity and skin corrosion data for some organic and inorganic aqueous solutions,Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol 42, 417–424 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    E. L. Reagan and P. L. Becci, Acute dermal toxicity study of 20 Mule Team lot no. USB-11-84 sodium tetraborate decahydrate in New Zealand white rabbits. Food and Drug Research Laboratories Inc., Waverly, NY 14892. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1985).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    E. L. Reagan and P. L. Becci, Acute dermal toxicity study of 20 Mule Team lot no. USB-12-84 sodium tetraborate pentahydrate in New Zealand white rabbits. Food and Drug Research Laboratories Inc., Waverly, NY 14892. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1985).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    R. L. Doyle, Acute dermal toxicity in rabbits of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH, 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1989).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. J. Kreuzmann, Acute dermal toxicity in rabbits—limit test XPI-187 zinc borate. Study No. 90-4186-21. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1990).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    D. L. Cerven, Acute dermal toxicity in rabbits/ LD50 in rabbits. Zinc Borate 4.1.1. MB Research Laboratories Inc., Spinnerstown, PA, 18968. Project No. MB 92-1301 B. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1992).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    EEC Council Directive 93/35/EEC (14 June 1993) amending for the sixth time Directive 76/768/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products. OJ L151, 23.06.93, 32 (1993).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    L. Roudabush, C. J. Terhaar, D. W. Fassett, and S. P. Dziuba, Comparative acute effects of some chemicals on the skin of rabbits and Guinea pigs,Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 7, 559–565 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. A. Silaev, Experimental determination of the maximum permissible concentration of sodium perborate in workplace air,Gig. Te. Prof. Zabo. 6, 44 (1984).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    E. L. Reagan and P. L. Becci, Primary dermal irritation study of 20 Mule Team lot no. USB-11-84 sodium tetraborate decahydrate in New Zealand white rabbits. Food and Drug Research Laboratories Inc., Waverly, NY 14892. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1985).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    E. L. Reagan and P. L. Becci, Primary dermal irritation study of 20 Mule Team lot no. USB-12-84 sodium tetraborate pentahydrate in New Zealand white rabbits. Food and Drug Research Laboratories Inc., Waverly, NY 14892. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1985).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    R. J. Doyle, Primary skin irritation in rabbits of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH, 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1989).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    J. A. Young, and R. L. Doyle, Corrosivity study on a series of ten materials. 73-630-21, Hill Top Research Inc., Cincinnati, OH, 45242. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1973).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    D. L. Cerven, Primary dermal irritation in albino rabbits. Zinc Borate 4.1.1. MB Research Laboratories Inc., Spinnerstown, PA 18968. Project No: MB 92-1301 C. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1992).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. J. Kreuzmann, Primary skin irritation study in rabbits of: XPI-187 Zinc Borate. Study No. 90-4186-21 Hill Top Biolabs Inc. Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1990).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. L. Doyle, Primary eye irritation of boric acid. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1989).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    R. L. Doyle, Eye irritation study without rinsing in rabbits of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1989).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    R. L. Doyle, Primary eye irritation in rabbits of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1989).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    D. L. Cerven, Primary eye irritation and/or corrosion in rabbits. Zinc Borate 4.1.1. MB Research Laboratories Inc., Spinnerstown, PA 18968. Project No. MB 92-1301 D. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1992).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    J. J. Kreuzmann, Primary eye irritation study in rabbits of: XPI-187 Zinc Borate Study No. 90-4186-21. Hill Top Biolabs, Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1990).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    E. L. Reagan and P. L. Becci, Primary eye irritation study of 20 mule team lot no. USB-11-84 sodium tetraborate decahydrate in New Zealand white rabbits. Food and Drug Research Laboratories Inc., Waverly, NY 14892. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1985).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    E. L. Reagan and P. L. Becci, Primary eye irritation study of 20 mule team lot no. USB-12-84 sodium tetraborate pentahydrate in New Zealand white rabbits. Food and Drug Research Laboratories Inc., Waverly, NY 14892. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1985).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    R. L. Doyle, Primary eye irritation of 10 Borax Mol. Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1989).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    G. Wnorowski, Dermal sensitization test—Buehler method on boric acid, Study No. 3310. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    G. Wnorowski, Dermal sensitization test—Buehler method on disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, Study No. 3312. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. Wnorowski, Dermal sensitization test—Buehler method on sodium tetraborate decahydrate, Study No. 3308. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    G. Wnorowski, Dermal sensitization test—Buehler method on sodium tetraborate pentahydrate, Study No. 3306. Product Safety Labs, East Brunswick, NJ 08816. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1994).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    K. Snell, Firebrake 415: Magnusson & Kligman Study in the Guinea Pig. SafePharm Laboratories Ltd., Derby, UK, Project No. 801/002. Unpublished report to Borax Europe Ltd. (1996).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. J. Kreuzmann, Delayed Contact Hypersensitisation Study in Guinea Pigs of Firebrake® ZB Zinc Borate 2335. Study No. 90-4038-21 Hill Top Biolabs Inc., Miamiville, OH 45147. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1990).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    M. Bruze, E. Hradil, I-L. Eriksohn, B. Gruvberger, and L. Widstrom, Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from alkanolamineborates in metalworking fluids,Contact Dermatitis 32, 24–27 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    D. H. Wegman, E. A. Eisen, X. Hu, S. Woskie, R. G. Smith, and D. H. Garabant, Acute and chronic respiratory effects of sodium borate particulate exposures,Environ. Health Perspectives 102, 119–128 (1994).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of boric acid (CAS No. 10043-35-3) in B6C3F1 mice. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health (Technical Report Series No. 324) (1987).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    S. Haworth, T. Lawlor, and K. Mortelmans, Salmonella mutagenicity test results for 250 chemicals,Environ. Mutat. Suppl. 1, 3–142 (1983).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    J. R. Landolph, Cytotoxicity and negligible genotoxicity of borax ores to cultured mammalian cells,Am. J. Ind. Med. 7, 31–43 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    J. P. Bakke, Evaluation of the potential of boric acid to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in thein vitro hepatocyte DNA repair assay using the male F-344 Rat. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, Study No. 2389-V500-91; and Amendment 1 to the Original Report. Unpublished Report to U.S. Borax (1991).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    K. R. Stewart,Salmonella/microsome plate incorporation assay of boric acid. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, Study No. 2389-A200-91, Unpublished report to U.S. Borax (1991).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    K. G. O’Loughlin, Bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus assay of boric acid in Swiss-Webster mice. SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, Study No. 2389-C400-91, August 1991. Unpublished Report to U.S. Borax (1991).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    H. S. Rosenkranz, Sodium hypochlorite and sodium perborate; preferential inhibitors of DNA polymerase deficient bacteria,Mutat. Res. 21, 171–174 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    J. P. Selier, The mutagenic activity of sodium perborate,Mutat. Res. 224, 219–227 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    P. W. Thompson,Firebrake 415: Reverse Mutation Assay “Ames Test” usingSalmonella Typhimurium andEscherichia Coli. SafePharm Laboratories Ltd, Derby, UK. Project No. 801/004. Unpublished report to Borax Europe Ltd. (1996).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    G. C. Lavelle and M. Entrup, The Salmonella/Microsomal Assay for Bacterial Mutagenic Activity of Firebrake ZB. Study No 81-0932-21 Hill Top Research Inc. P.O. Box 42501, Cincinnati, OH 45242. Unpublished report to U.S. Borax Inc. (1981).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    R. Durward and N. P. Wright,Firebrake 415: Chromosome Aberration test in CHL cellsin vitro. SafePharm Laboratories Ltd, Derby, UK. Project No. 801/005. Unpublished report to Borax Europe Ltd. (1996).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    C. T. Walsh, H. H. Sandstead, A. S. Prasad, P. M. Newberne, and P. J. Fraker, Zinc: Health effects and research priorities for the 1990s,Environ. Health Perspectives 102, 5–46 (1994).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    W. Kliegel,BOR in Biologie, Medizin und Pharmazie, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    A. S. Gordon, J. S. Prichard, and M. H. Freedman, Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication,C.M.A.J. 108, 719–724 (1973).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    K. O’Sullivan and M. Taylor, Chronic boric acid poisoning in infants,Arch. Dis. Childhood 58, 737–749 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    R. E. Linder, L. F. Strader, and G. L. Rehnberg, Effect of acute exposure to boric acid on the male reproductive system of the rat,J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 31, 133–146 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    H. Bouissou and R. Castagnol, Action de l’acide borique dur le testicule de rat. Archives des Maladies Professionelles de Medecin du Travail et de Sécurité Social, T286, 293–306 (1965).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    I. P. Lee, R. J. Sherins, and R. L. Dixon, Evidence for induction of germinal aplasia in male rats by environmental exposure to boron,Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 45, 577–590 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    P. A. Fail, J. D. George, J. C. Seely, T. B. Grizzle, and J. J. Heindel, Reproductive toxicity of boric acid in Swiss (CD-1) mice: assessment using the continuous breeding protocol,Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 17, 225–239 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Anonymous, Sodium perborate tetrahydrate. A four-week oral toxicity study after repeated administration in rats. Study No. 687666. Unpublished report to Degussa AG, Hanau, Germany (1989).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    M. D. Whorton, J. L. Haas, L. Trent, and O. Wong, Reproductive effects of sodium borates on male employees: birth rate assessment,Occup. Environ. Med. 51, 761–767 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    B. S. Sayli,Biol. Trace Element Res. 66, 409–422 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    C. J. Price, P. L. Strong, M. C. Marr, C. B. Myers, and F. J. Murray, Developmental toxicity NOAEL and postnatal recovery in rats fed boric acid during gestation,Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 32, 179–193 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    J. J. Heindel, C. J. Price, E. A. Field, M. C. Marr, C. B. Myers, R. E. Morrissey, et al., Developmental toxicity of boric acid in mice and rats,Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 18, 266–272 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    C. J. Price, M. C. Marr, C. B. Myers, J. J. Heindel, and B. A. Schwetz, Final report on the developmental toxicity of boric acid (CAS No. 10043-35-3) in New Zealand white rabbits, NIEHS/NTP Order No. PB92-129550 (1991).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    R. Bussi, Sodium perborate tetrahydrate: Teratogenesis study in rats by oral route, RBM SpA, Torino, Italy. Unpublished report to Conseil European de l’Industrie Chimique (CEFIC) (1995).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    D. Fort et al.,Biol. Trace Element Res. 66, 237–260 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    R. I. Rowe, C. Bouzan, Si Nabili, and C. Deckhert,Biol. Trace Element Res. 66, 261–270 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan A. Hubbard
    • 1
  1. 1.Borax Europe LimitedGuildfordUK

Personalised recommendations