Advertisement

Medical Oncology

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 179–182 | Cite as

Selected risk factors for transitional cell bladder cancer

  • S SadetzkiEmail author
  • D Bensal
  • T Blumstein
  • I Novikov
  • B Modan
Original Paper

Abstract

Cancer of the bladder has long been associated with environmental risk factors, such as occupational hazards and smoking. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contribution of known risk factors on a community basis in the 1990s, in view of the recent worldwide efforts to control environmental hazards. The study population included 140 male patients and 280 matched controls. Information on demographic data, occupational exposure, smoking habits and disease history was obtained by personal interviews. Our study confirmed the role of industrial occupation (OR=2.21; 95% Cl=1.21−4.02) and exposure to 3 or more metals (OR=3.65; 95% Cl=1.21−11.08) as risk factors. Prostate enlargement was also found significant, but probably not causal (OR=2.23;95% Cl=1.29−3.87). Surprisingly, smoking showed only an inconsistent association with higher rates among those who started to smoke before 18 years of age (OR=2.64; 95% Cl=1.4−4.99) and those who smoked more than 30 cigarettes per day (OR=1.82; 95% Cl=0.95−3.49). The above data suggest that current efforts to reduce the load of bladder cancer in the population, via environmental measures, have not as yet yielded significant effects.

Keywords

bladder cancer smoking occupational exposure epidemiology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Silverman DT, Hartge P, Morrison AS, Devesa SS. Epidemiology of bladder cancer.Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1992;6: 1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choen SM, Johannson SL. Epidemiology and etiology of bladder cancer.Urol Clin North Am 1992;19: 421–428.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kunze E, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R. Life style and occupation risk factors for bladder cancer in Germany.Cancer 1992;69: 1776–1790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang Eet al. Bladder cancer and occupation in Shanghai.Am J Ind Med 1992;21: 877–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lilienfeld A, Levin M, Moore G The association of smoking with cancer of the urinary bladder in humans.Arch Int Med 1956;98: 129–135.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bedwani Ret al., Epidemiology of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt: tobacco smoking.Int J Cancer 1997;73: 64–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muir Cet al. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume V. IARC Scientific Publication No. 88, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1987.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parkin DMet al. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume VII. IARC Scientific Publication No. 143, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1987.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    EGRET Statistical Software, 1997. Cytel Software Cooperation, 675 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Health Status in Israel, 1999. Israel Center for Disease Control. Publication 209.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berkson J. Limitations of the application of fourfold table analysis to hospital data.Biometrics 1946;2: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sadetzki S, Novikov I, Modan B. Berkson's bias revisited. 1999 (Submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burch JDet al. Risk of bladder cancer by source and type of tobacco exposure: a case-control study.Int J Cancer 1989;44: 622–628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Auerbach O, Garfinkel L. Histologic changes in the urinary bladder in relation to cigarette smoking and use of artificial sweeteners.Cancer 1989;64: 983–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vineis P, Esteve J, Terracini B. Bladder cancer and smoking in males: types of cigarettes, age at start, effect of stopping and interaction with occupation.Int J Cancer 1984;34: 165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • S Sadetzki
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • D Bensal
    • 1
    • 2
  • T Blumstein
    • 1
    • 2
  • I Novikov
    • 1
    • 2
  • B Modan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical EpidemiologyChaim Sheba Medical CenterTel Hashomer
  2. 2.Stanley Steyer Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and ResearchTel Aviv University Medical SchoolIsrael

Personalised recommendations