Advertisement

Russian Microelectronics

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 219–234 | Cite as

Principles of flicker noise spectroscopy and its application to disordered semiconductors: IonImplanted silicon

  • M. I. Makoviichuk
Article
  • 68 Downloads

Abstract

Flicker noise spectroscopy in disordered semiconductors is gaining wide acceptance both in physical investigation and in analysis of various microelectronics processes. Its successful use as a diagnostic tool in microtechnology is a result of advances in fundamental studies of flicker noise in semiconductors with disordered structure. In this work, we systematize experimental data for flicker noise phenomena in disordered semiconductors, specifically, in ion-implanted silicon

Keywords

Noise Intensity RUSSIAN Microelectronics Space Charge Region Flicker Noise Sheet Resistivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kogan, Sh.M., Low-Frequency Current Noise with a 1/f type Spectrum in Solids,Usp. Fiz. Nauk, 1985, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 285–328.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Luk’yanchikova, N.B.,Fluktuatsionnye yavleniya v poluprovodnikakh i poluprovodnikovykh priborakh (Fluctuations in Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices), Moscow: Radio i Svyaz’, 1990.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Noise in Physical Systems and 1/f Fluctuations,Proc. 14th Int. Conf., Claeys, C and Simoen, S., Eds., Leuven, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D’yakonova, N.V., Levinshtein, M.E., and Rumyantsev, S.L., The Nature of Bulk 1/f Noise in GaAs and Si,Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. (Leningrad), 1991, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2065–2104.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Palenskis, V., Flicker Noise Problems: A Review,Lit. Fiz. Sb., 1990, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 107–152.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hooge, F.N., Kleinpenning, T.G.M., and Vandamme, L.K.J., Experimental Studies on 1/f Noise,Rep. Prog. Phys., 1981, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 479–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    VanVliet, C.M., A Survey of Results and Future Prospects on Quantum 1/f Noise and 1/f Noise in General,Solid-State Electron., 1991, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Makoviichuk, M.I., Current Noise Spectrodcopy in Ion-Doped Semiconductors,Mat. VII mezhdunarodnoi konf. po mikroelektronike (Proc. VII Int. Conf on Microelectronics), Minsk: Popov Radio Engineering Society, 1990, vol. 1, pp. 245–247.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eberhard, J.M. and Horn, P.M., Excess (1/f) Noise in Metals,Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter, 1978, vol. 18, no. 12, p. 6681.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vande Voorde, P. and Love, W.F., Magnetic Effects on 1/f Noise in n-InSb,Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter, 1981, vol. 24, no. 8, p. 4781.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Adkins, C.J. and Koch, R.H., Noise in Inversion Layers Near Metal-Insulator Transition,J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., 1982, vol. 15, no. 8, p. 1829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pender, L.F. and Wintle, H.J., Electrical 1/f Noise in Insulating Polymers,J. Appl. Phys., 1979, vol. 50, no. 1, p. 361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tacano, M., Sugiyama, Y., Taguchi, T., and Soga, H., Low-Frequency Noise in GaAs Layers Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,Solid-State Electron., 1988, vol. 31, no. 7, p. 1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hsieh, K.C., McNamara, D.A., Chenette, E.R., Vander Ziel, A., and Watters, R.L., Noise in Ion Implanted Integrated Circuit Resistors,Solid-State Electron., 1977, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fleetwood, D.M. and Giordano, N., Effect of Strain on the 1/f Noise of Metal Films,Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter, 1983, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 3625.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhigal’skii, G.P., Sokov, Yu.E., and Tomson, N.G., 1/f Noise in Thin Aluminum Films from Internal Mechanical Stress,Radiotekh. Electron., 1979, vol. 24, no. 2, p. 410.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Makoviichuk, M.I., Fluctuation Spectroscopy for Study of Ion-Doped Silicon,Zarubezh. Voen. Tekh., 1984, no. 6(6).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Makoviichuk, M.I. and Omel’yanchuk, V.P., Experimental Study of Low-Frequency Current Noise Sources in Optical Receivers,Zarubezh. Voen. Tekh., 1986, no. 17(57).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Makoviichuk, M.I. and Stoyanova, LG., Fluctuation Analysis of IC Components: A Review,Obzor no. 4725, Moscow: TsNII informatsii, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Makoviichuk, M.I., The Effect of Ion Implantation and Heat Treatment on the Noise Properties of Silicon,Preprint of Inst. of Microelectronics, Russ. Acad. Sci., Yaroslavl, 1989, no. 5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Makoviichuk, M.I., Parshin, E.O., Rekshinskii, V.A., and Ksenofontov, K.I., 1/f Noise in Extra-High-Purity Ion-Implanted Silicon,Vysokochist. Veshchestva, 1996, no. 3, pp. 90-96.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hooge, F.N., Discussion of Recent Experiments on 1/f Noise,Physica B, 1972, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 130–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clevers, R.H.M., Dependence of the 1/f Noise Parameter αl On Volume and Temperature,Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Noise in Physical Systems, Rome, 1985, pp. 411-414.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Luo, J., Love, W.F., and Miler, S.C., Temperature Dependence of the 1/f Noise in Silicon,J. Appl. Phys., 1986, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 3196–3198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bosman, G., Zijlstra, R., and vanRheenen, A.D., 1/f Noise of Thermal and Hot Charge Carriers in Silicon,Physica B, 1982, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 188–196.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alekperov, S.A., Guseinov, N.Ya., Kodzhar, Ch.O., and Salaev, E.Yu., Temperature Dependence of 1/f Noise in InSb),Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. (Leningrad), 1986, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1549–1551.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vandamme, L.K.J. and Oosterhof, S., Annealing of IonImplanted Resistors Reduces the 1/f Noise,J. Appl. Phys., 1986, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3169–3174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Black, R.D., Weissman, M.B., and Restle, P.J., 1/f Noise in Silicon Wafers,J. Appl. Phys., 1982, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 6280–6284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guk, E.G., D’yakonova, N.V., and Levinshtein, M.E., Light Suppression of 1/f Noise in Silicon,Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. (Leningrad), 1988, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1120–1122.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Guk, E.G., D’yakonova, N.V., Levinshtein, M.E., and Rumyantsev, S.L., Nonmonotone Illuminance Dependence of 1/f Noise in Si and a Model of Bulk 1/f Noise in Semiconductors,Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. (Leningrad), 1990, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 813–820.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    McWhorter, A.L., 1/f Noise and Related Surface Effect in Germanium,M.S. Thesis, M.I.T. Lincoln Lab. Rep. 80, Boston, MA, 1955.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Van der Ziel, A.,Fluctuation Phenomena in Semiconductors, New York: Wiley, 1958. Translated under the titleFluktuatsionnye yavleniya v poluprovodnikakh, Moscow: Inostr. Lit., 1961.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Abowitz, G., Arnold, E., and Leventhal, E.A., Surface States and 1/f Noise in MOS Transistors,IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 1967, vol. 14, pp. 775–777.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Berz, F., Theory of Low Frequency Noise in Si MOSTs,Solid-State Electron., 1970, vol. 13, pp. 631–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fu, H.S. and Sah, C.T., Theory and Experiments on Surface 1/f Noise,IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 1972, vol. 19, pp. 273–285.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brunke, W.C., Noise Measurements in Field Effect Transistors,Proc. IEEE (correspondence), 1963, vol. 51, pp. 378–379.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hsu, S.T., Fitzgerald, D.J., and Grove, A.S., Surface-Related 1/f Noise in p-n Junctions and MOS Transistors,Appl. Phys. Lett., 1968, vol. 12, pp. 287–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vandamme, L.K.J., Model for 1/f Noise in MOS Transistors Biased in the Linear Region,Solid-State Electron., 1980, vol. 23, pp. 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kandiah, K. and Whiting, F.B., Low Frequency Noise in Junction Field Effect Transistors,Solid-State Electron., 1978, vol. 21, pp. 1079–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    McWhorter, A.F., 1/f Noise and Surface Properties of Germanium,Fizika poverkhnosti poluprovodnikov (The Physics of Semiconductor Surface), Pikus, G.E., Ed., Moscow: Inostr. Lit., 1959.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Blasquez, G., General Aspects of Noise Phenomena,Instabilities in Silicon Devices: Silicon Passivation and Related Instabilities, Barbottin, G. and Vapaile, A., Eds., Elsevier, 1986, p. 363.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Klaasen, F.M., Characterization of Low 1/f Noise of MOS Transistors,IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 1971, vol. 18, no. 10, p. 887.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hafez, I.M., Ghibaudo, G., and Balestra, F., A Study of Flicker Noise in MOS Transistors Operated at Room and Liquid Helium Temperatures,Solid-State Electron., 1990, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1525–1529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levental, E.A., Derivation of 1/f Noise in Silicon Inversion Layers From Carrier Motion in a Surface Band,Solid-State Electron., 1968, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hsu, S.T., Surface State Related 1/f Noise in MOS Transistors,Solid-State Electron., 1970, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1451–1459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Haslett, J.W. and Trofimenkoff, F.N., Effect of the Substrate on Surface State Noise in Silicon MOSFETs,Solid-State Electron., 1972, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rogers, C.T., Farmer, K.R., and Buhrman, R.A., Noise in Very Small Electronic Devices: Understanding the Origin of the 1/f Spectrum,Proc. 9th Int. Conf. “Noise in Physical Systems,” Montreal: World Scientific, 1987, p. 293.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bollu, M., Madenach, A.J., Koch, F., Scholz, J., and Stooll, H., Quantitative Investigation of Conductance Fluctuation Due to Single Traps in MOSFETs,Proc. 9th Int. Conf. “ Noise in Physical Systems, “ Montreal: World Scientific, 1987, p. 217.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rails, K.S., Skocpol, W.J., Jackel, L.D., Howard, R.E., Fetter, L.A., Epworth, R.W., and Tennant, D.M., Discrete Resistance Switching in Submicrometer Silicon Inversion Layers: Individual Interface Traps and Low Frequency (1/f ?) Noise,Phys. Rev. Lett., 1984, vol. 52, no. 3, p. 228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Uren, M.J., Day, D.J., and Kirton, M.J., l/f and Random Telegraph Noise in Silicon Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors,Appl. Phys. Lett., 1985, vol. 47, no. 11, p. 1195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rogers, C.T. and Buhrman, R.A., Composition of 1/f Noise Metal-Insulator-Metal Tunnel Junctions,Phys. Rev. Lett., 1984, vol. 53, no. 13, p. 1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bilger, H.R., Tandon, J.L., and Nicolet, M.-A., Excess Noise Measurements in Ion-Implanted Silicon Resistors,Solid-State Electron., 1974, vol. 17, pp. 599–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Beck, H.G.E., 1/f Noise Measurements in Ion-Implanted Silicon Resistors as a Function of Substrate Reverse Bias Voltage,Solid-State Electron., 1977, vol. 20, pp. 951–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beck, H.G.E., Model of Ion-Implanted Resistors as a Function of the Resistance Determined by a Reverse Bias Voltage,Solid-State Electron., 1979, vol. 22, pp. 475–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Palenskis, V., Flicker Noise Problem,6th Sci. Conf. On Fluctuation Phenomena in Physical Systems, Palanga, 1991, p. 70.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chen, T.M. and Cottle, J.G., Physical Model of Burst Noise in Thick-Film Resistors,Solid-State Electron., 1986, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 865–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pellegrini, B., Saletti, R., Terreni, P., and Prudenziati, M., 1/fy Noise in Thick-Film Resistors as an Effect of Tunnel and Thermally Activated Emission from Measures Versus Frequency and Temperature,Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter, 1983, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1233–1243.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Makoviichuk, M.I. and Rekshinskii, V.A., 1/f Noise in Extra-High-Purity Single-Crystal Silicon,Vysokochist. veshchestva, 1996, no. 2, pp. 59-65.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Makoviichuk, M.I. and Rekshinskii, V.A., Flicker Fluctuation Analysis of Microelectronic Structures,Zavod. Lab., 1996, no. 8, pp. 35-37.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fizicheskie protsessy v obluchennykh poluprovodnikakh (Physical Processes in Irradiated Semiconductors), Smirnov, L.S., Ed., Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1977.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Makoviychuk, M.I., Parshin, E.O., and Rekshinskii, V.A., Flicker Noise in Ion-Implanted Silicon Structures,Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B, 1997, no. 127/128, pp. 414-417.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stel’makh, V.F., Tkachev, V.D., and Chelyadinskii, A.R., X-ray Diffraction Investigation of Ion-Doped Silicon Layers,Mater. V vsesoyuz. konf. “Vzaimodeistvie atomnykh chastits s tverdym telom ” (Proc. V All-Union Conf. “Interaction of Atomic Particles with Solids”), Minsk, 1978, part 2, p. 101.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vavilov, V.S. and Chelyadinskii, A.R., Ion Implantation of Impurities in Silicon Single Crystals: Efficiency and Radiation-Induced Damage,Usp. Fiz. Nauk, 1995, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 347–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Botvin, V.A., Gorelkinskii, Yu.V, Sigla, V.O., and Chubisov, M.A., Paramagnetic Centers in Silicon Irradiated by Heavy Charged Particles,Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. (Leningrad), 1972, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1683–1686.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Makoviichuk, M.I., The Principles of Flicker Noise Spectroscopy of Ion-Implanted Microelectronic Structures,Materialy mezhdunawdnogo nauchno-tekhnicheskogo seminara “Shumovye i degradatsionnye protsessy v poluprovodnikovykh priborakh ” (Proc. Int. Sci.Tech. Workshop “Noise and Degradation in Semiconductor Devices”), Moscow: Mosk. Energ. Inst., 1997, pp. 276–293.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kurnosov, A.I. and Yudin, V.V.,Tekhnologiya proizvodstva poluprovodnikovykh priborov (Production of Semiconductor Devices), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1974.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Makoviichuk, M.I., Flicker Noise Spectroscopy of IonImplanted Microelectronic Structures,Tr. Fiz.-Tekh. Inst. Akad. Nauk, 1997, vol. 12, pp. 139–152.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ryssel, H. and Ruge, I.,Ionenimplantation, Stuttgart: Teubner, 1978. Translated under the titleIonnaya implantatsiya, Moscow: Nauka, 1983.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mayer, J., Eriksson, L., and Davis, J.,Ion Implantation in Semiconductors: Silicon and Germanium, New York: Academic, 1970. Translated under the titleIonnoe legirovanie poluprovodnikov, Moscow: Mir, 1973.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zorin, E.I., Pavlov, P.V., and Tetel’baum, D.I.,Ionnoe legirovanie poluprovodnikov (Ion Implantation of Semiconductors), Moscow: Energiya, 1975.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Karyagin, S.N., Kashkarov, P.K., Makoviichuk, M.I., Stoyanova, I.G., and Troitskii, V.Yu., On the Correlation of 1/f Noise and Spin Centers in Ion-Implanted Silicon Layers,Trudy IV vsesoyuznoi konferentsii “Fluktuatsionnye yavleniya v fizicheskikh sistemakh ” (Proc. IV All-Union Conf. “Fluctuations in Physical Systems”), Pushchino, 1985, pp. 82-83.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Glotten, F.M., The Effect of Temperature on Silicon Implantation by Phosphorus Ions,Legirovanie poluprovodnikov ionnym vnedreniem (Ion Doping of Semiconductors), Moscow: Mir, 1971.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Voprosy radiatsionnoi tekhnologii poluprovodnikov (Radiation-Related Technology of Semiconductors), Smirnov, L.S., Ed., Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1980.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lee, J.H., Kim, J.M., and Corbett, J.W., New EPR Spectra in Neutron-Irradiated Silicon,Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids, 1972, vol. 15, nos. 1-2, p. 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. I. Makoviichuk
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Microelectronics and InformaticsRussian Academy of SciencesYaroslavlRussia

Personalised recommendations