Entomophaga

, Volume 42, Issue 1–2, pp 153–163 | Cite as

Cannibalism and interspecific predation in two predatory ladybirds in relation to prey abundance in the field

  • Y. Hironori
  • S. Katsuhiro

Abstract

Life tables for two predatory ladybirds,Coccinella septempunctata andHarmonia axyridis, were constructed in two years in which prey abundance differed. The prey aphid,Aphis gossypii, was abundant on its primary host from late May to late June. Females ofH. axyridis andC. septempumctata laid their eggs during the increase and peak in aphid abundance. The oviposition period ofC. septempunctata started before and was shorter than that ofH. axyridis. In both species, intraguild predation and/or cannibalism of the egg and fourth instar stages, but rarely of other developmental stages, were observed. Fourth instar larvae ofH. axyridis had to complete their development when aphids were scarce more frequently than those ofC. septempunctata. The highest frequency of intra- and interspecific predation was of fourth instarH. axyridis larvae. In terms of intraguild predation, the larvae ofH. axyridis preyed on larvae ofC. septempunctata, but the reverse was not observed. Percentage survival from egg to adult inH. axyridis was higher than inC. septempunctata in both years, and least in both species in the year of low aphid abundance. These results suggest that prey abundance influenced the frequency of cannibalism and intraguild predation, which were important in structuring this guild of ladybirds.

Key-Words

Coccinellidae life tables intraguild predation cannibalism prey abundance emigration 

Cannibalisme et prédation interspécifique au champ chez deux coccinelles prédatrices en relation avec l’abondance de la proie

Résumé

Des tables de survive pour deux coccinelles prédatrices,Coccinella septempunctata etHarmonia axyridis, ont été établies au cours de deux années où l’abondance en proies était différente. La proie,Aphis gossypii, était abondante sur l’hôte primaire de la fin mai à la fin juin. Les femelles d’H. axyridis et deC. septempunctata ont pondu leurs œufs pendant la période de multiplication et le pic d’abondance des pucerons. Par rapport àH. axyridis, la période d’oviposition deC. septempunctata a débuté plus tôt et a été plus courte. Chez les deux espèces, on a observé la prédation intra-guilde et/ou le cannibalisme du stade œuf et du 4e stade larvaire, mais rarement celui des autres stades de développement. Les larves du 4e stade d’H. axyridis ont dû, plus souvent que celles deC. septempunctata, achever leur développement alors que les pucerons devenaient rares. La fréquence de prédation inter- et intraspécifique la plus élevée a été observée chez les larves du 4e stade d’H. axyridis. En termes de prédation intraguilde, les larves deH. axyridis peuvent se nourrir des larves deC. septempunctata, mais l’inverse n’a pas été observé. Le taux de survie de l’œuf à l’adulte a été plus élevé chezH. axyridis que chezC. septempunctata durant les deux années, et plus faible chez les deux espèces l’année où les pucerons étaient moins abondants. Ces résultats suggèrent que l’abondance des proies influe sur la fréquence du cannibalisme et de la prédation intraguilde, ce qui est important dans la structuration de cette guilde de coccinelles.

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Copyright information

© Lavoisier Abonnements 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Hironori
    • 1
  • S. Katsuhiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgricultureYamagata University TsuruokaYamagataJapan

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