, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 163–174

Pictures, audio, and print: symbolic representation and effect on learning

  • Gwen C. Nugent

DOI: 10.1007/BF02766597

Cite this article as:
Nugent, G.C. ECTJ (1982) 30: 163. doi:10.1007/BF02766597


Can presentations by an iconic system (pictures) and a linguistic system (print or audio) aid learning? Tests given fourth-to-sixth graders showed that they alternate between systems, using each to assimilate information. However, when content differed between the systems — and this information was presented simultaneously (visual + audio) — processing of the information was not as effective.

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gwen C. Nugent
    • 1
  1. 1.Interactive Cable Project at Nebraska ETVUniversity of NebraskaLincoln

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