Advertisement

Journal of Insect Behavior

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 31–47 | Cite as

Influences on variation in territorial tenures of male white-faced dragonflies (Leucorrhinia intacta) (Odonata: Libellulidae)

  • Larry L. Wolf
  • Edward C. Waltz
  • Deborah Klockowski
  • Katie Wakeley
Article

Abstract

Some individuals in species with extended periods of territorial occupancy may change territory locations within a single bout of territorial activity. Length of occupancy of mating territories among males in a local population of white-faced dragonflies (Leucorrhinia intacta) varied from more than 6 h to 15 min or less. Males with short tenures often established territories in several locations on the pond during a day. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain shifting territorial sites rather than remaining in a single site during one bout of territoriality. We attempted to test the hypothesis that males shift to leave low-quality sites. Site quality may be affected by costs of defense in relation to intruder rate and the mating benefits of holding the territory. To test whether variation in these possible effects of benefits and costs of territoriality influenced tenure, we manipulated local quality of oviposition substrate and perch density. The quality of oviposition substrate, but not perch density, influenced both potential benefits and costs of territoriality. Female density was higher in areas with good substrate, but so were rates of males intruding into the territories, rates of chasing by territorial males, and local density of territorial males. More matings occurred in areas with good substrate, but among males with tenures of 15 min or more, mating success per male and tenure lengths did not differ statistically among treatments. Defense costs were low for all treatments and perhaps were not an important influence on tenure duration. Territorial males in this population probably adjusted local density to expected mating success by initial choice of site rather than by varying tenure length. Variation in tenure length at a site resulted, in part, from stochastic external factors, such as predation attempts.

Key words

Leucorrhinia intacta dragonflies territoriality territorial tenures costs of defense benefits of defense mating success Odonata Libellulidae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alcock, J. (1987). Male reproductive tactics in the libellulid dragonfly,Paltothemis lineatipes: temporal partitioning of territories.Behaviour 103: 157–173.Google Scholar
  2. Alcock, J. (1989). The mating system ofBrechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen): The evolution of brief patrolling bouts in a “territorial” dragonfly (Odonata: Libellulidae).J. Insect Behav. 2: 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcock, J. (1993). Differences in site fidelity among territorial males of the carpenter beeXylocopa varipuncta (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).Behaviour 125: 199–217.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, J. (1964). The evolution of diversity in avian territorial systems.Wilson Bull. 76: 160–169.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, J. (1975).The Evolution of Behavior, W. W. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, J. (1982). Optimal group size in territorial animals.J. Theor. Biol. 95: 793–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campanella, P. J., and Wolf, L. L. (1974). Temporal leks as a mating system in a temperate zone dragonfly (Odonata: Libellulidae). I.Plathemis lydia (Drury).Behaviour 51: 49–87.Google Scholar
  8. Carpenter, F. L., and MacMillen, R. E. (1976). Threshold model of feeding territoriality and test with a Hawaiian honeycreeper.Science 194: 639–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charnov, E. L. (1976). Optimal foraging: the marginal value theorem.Theoret. Pop. Biol. 9: 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cowie, R. J. (1977). Optimal foraging in great titsParus major.Nature (London) 268: 137–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davies, N. B., and Houston, A. I. (1981). Owners and satellites: The economics of territory defence in the pied wagtail,Motacilla alba.J. Anim. Ecol. 50: 157–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ewald, P. W., and Carpenter, F. L. (1978). Territorial response to energy manipulations in the Anna’s hummingbird.Oecologia (Berl.) 31: 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forsyth, A., and Montgomerie, R. D. (1987). Alternative reproductive tactics in a territorial damselflyCalopteryx maculata: Sneaking by older males.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 21: 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gill, F. B., and Wolf, L. L. (1975). Economics of feeding territoriality in the golden-winged sunbird.Ecology 56: 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hixon, M. A. (1980). Food production and competitor density as the determinants of feeding territory size.Am. Nat. 115: 510–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaiser, H. (1969). Regulation der Individuendichte am Paarungsplatz bei der LibelleAeschna cyanea durch “zeitliches Territorialverhalten.”Zool. An. Suppl. 33: 79–85.Google Scholar
  17. Kaufmann, J. H. (1983). On the definitions and functions of dominance and territoriality.Biol. Rev. 58: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koenig, W. D. (1990). Territory size and duration in the white-tailed skimmerPlathemis lydia (Odonata: Libellulidae).J. Anim. Ecol. 59: 317–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krebs, J. R., and McCleery, R. H. (1984). Optimization in behavioural ecology. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.),Behavioural Ecology, an Evolutionary Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 91–121.Google Scholar
  20. McMillan, V. (1991). Variable mate-guarding behaviour in the dragonflyPlathemis lydia (Odonata: Libellulidae).Anim. Behav. 41: 979–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Myers, J. P., Connors, P. G., and Pitelka, F. A. (1981). Optimal territory size and the sanderling: Compromise in a variable environment. In Kamil, A. C., and Sargent, T. D. (eds.),Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches, Garland STPM Press, New York, pp. 135–158.Google Scholar
  22. Noble, G. K. (1939). The role of dominance in the social life of birds.Auk 56: 263–273.Google Scholar
  23. Parker, G. A. (1970). The reproductive behaviour and the nature of sexual selection inScatophaga stercoraria L. (Diptera: Scatophagidae). II. The fertilization rate and the spatial and temporal distribution of each sex around the site of mating and oviposition.J. Anim. Ecol. 39: 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Parker, G. A. (1984). Evolutionarily stable strategies. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.),Behavioural ecology, an Evolutionary Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 30–61.Google Scholar
  25. Schoener, T. W. (1983). Simple models of optimal feeding-territory size: a reconciliation.Am. Nat. 121: 608–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sherman, K. J. (1983). The adaptive significance of postcopulatory mate guarding in a dragonfly,Pachydiplax longipennis.Anim. Behav. 31: 1107–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Waage, J. K. (1984). Sperm competition and the evolution of odonate mating systems. In Smith, R. L. (ed.),Sperm Competition and the Evolution of Animal Mating Systems, Academic Press, New York, pp. 251–290.Google Scholar
  28. Waltz, E. C., and Wolf, L. L. (1988). Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies (Leucorrhinia intacta): Plasticity of tactical options and consequences for reproductive success.Evol. Ecol. 2: 205–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wolf, L. L., and Waltz, E. C. (1984). Dominions and cost variation of aggressive behavior in breeding maleLeucorrhinia intacta (Hagen).Behav. Ecol. Sociol. 14: 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wolf, L. L., and Waltz, E. C. (1988). Oviposition site selection and spatial predictability of female white-faced dragonflies (Leucorrhinia intacta) (Odonata: Libellulidae).Ethology 78: 306–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wolf, L. L., and Waltz, E. C. (1993). Alternative mating tactics in male white-faced dragonflies: Experimental evidence for a Behavioural Assessment ESS.Anim. Behav. 46: 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wolf, L. L., Waltz, E. C., Wakeley, K., and Klockowski, D. (1989). Copulation duration and sperm competition in white-faced dragonflies (Leucorrhinia intacta: Odonata: Libellulidae).Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 24: 63–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ydenberg, R. C., and Krebs, J. R. (1987). The tradeoff between territorial defense and foraging in the Great Tit (Parus major).Am. Zool. 27: 337–346.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry L. Wolf
    • 1
  • Edward C. Waltz
    • 1
  • Deborah Klockowski
    • 1
  • Katie Wakeley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologySyracuse UniversitySyracuse

Personalised recommendations