The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 85–91 | Cite as

Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in HIV patients with diarrhea: Implications for treatment

  • B. S. Ramakrishna
Symposium: Tropical Pediatrics—Part I


Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) commonly exprience diarrhea at some time during their illness. A variety of enteric pathogens are identified in 50–80% of these patients, depending on the intensity of the diagnostic work-up that is done. In addition to the common enteric pathogens, several unusual enteric pathogens are recognized to cause diarrhea especially in HIV patients. These include protozoan parasites such asCryptosporidia, lsospora belli, Cyclospora cayatenensis andMicrosporidium species bacteria such as enteropathogenicEscherichia coli andMycobacterium avium-intracellulare, fungi includingCandida albicans andHistoplasma capsulatum, and viruses such as astroviruses and caliciviruses. Dlagnosis of these infections sometimes involves special procedures not readily available every where, and empiric therapy based on knowledge of the likely pathogens has been advocated for developing countries. This article reviews the currently available data on geographic variation of enteric pathogens in HIV patients with diarrhea and outlines a rational strategy for empiric therapy of these patients.

Key words

Diarrhea Enteric pathogens Human immunodeficiency virus 


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Copyright information

© Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. S. Ramakrishna
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gastrointestinal SciencesChristian Medical College HospitalVellore

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