Journal of Chemical Ecology

, 18:1727 | Cite as

Efrapeptin production byTolypocladium fungi (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes): Intra- and interspecific variation

  • Stuart B. Krasnoff
  • Sandeep Gupta


Production of the mitochondrial ATPase inhibitory peptides efrapeptins was evaluated by HPLC analysis in 44 strains of nine species of the fungal genusTolypocladium (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes). Efrapeptin identification was confirmed by mass spectral data for the first time in the speciesT. cylindrosporum. HPLC retention time data indicated thatT. nubicola andT. tundrense, two species not previously known to produce efrapeptins, also produce the peptides. No efrapeptins were detected (<0.3 mg/100 ml broth) in single strains each ofT. balanoides, T. extinguens, T. parasiticum, andT. microsporum. Five strains ofT. geodes produced detectable amounts of efrapeptins and had compound F, or F and G, as the major component(s) in the mixture with the order of abundance being F> or ∼G > H ∼ D ∼ E > C. Eleven strains ofT. niveum produced detectable amounts of efrapeptins and had efrapeptins D and E as the primary and secondary components, respectively, in the mixture with the order of abundance being D > E > F > C ∼ G. A singleT. niveum strain had an efrapeptin profile similar to that of theT. geodes strains. Ten strains ofT. cylindrosporum had detectable amounts of efrapeptins. Of these, nine had F and one had G as the major component.T. cylindrosporum had higher ratios of E to D than didT. geodes. Efrapeptins were detected in one of twoT. nubicola strains analyzed (F > G > H) and one of threeT. tundrense strains (F > G > H > E).T. niveum strains could, in most cases, be identified to species on the basis of their efrapeptin profiles.

Key words

Chemotaxonomy fungus Tolypocladium fungal toxin mycotoxin efrapeptins 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart B. Krasnoff
    • 1
  • Sandeep Gupta
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Plant, Soil, and Nutrition LaboratoryUSDA-ARSIthaca
  2. 2.Boyce Thompson InstituteIthaca

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