Hydrogen in semiconductors
- 160 Downloads
Hydrogen in crystalline semiconductors has become a recent curiosity because of its high diffusivity and strong chemical activity in such materials. In contrast to the proton motion in ionic materials which gives rise to an enhanced conductivity, hydrogen in electronic materials interact with structural disorders and chemical impurities to control the electronic flow. Deep gap states in crystalline semiconductors due to various disorders such as surface/interface, grain boundaries, dislocations, irradiation and implantation damage etc. have been removed due to hydrogen bondings.
Hydrogen incorporation is done by plasma and direct ion beam hydrogenation methods, implantation technique and by a novel technique of damage free introduction. The most studied materials are silicon and gallium arsenide.I - V,C - V, DLTS and IR studies have been carried out on hydrogenated semiconductors to characterize the electronic flow, gap states and the nature of chemical bonds. Improvement in ideality factors of diodes, reduction in free carrier concentration, removal or reduction of deep states and appearance of new bondings such as Si-H, P-H, B-H etc. have been observed from various techniques.
The present paper reviews the various features of hydrogenation studies in crystalline silicon and gallium arsenide and highlights our results of hydrogenation studies on Pd/semiconductor devices.
KeywordsSemiconductor hydrogen interface states passivation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Amore Bonapasta A, Lapiccirella A, Tomassinia N and Capizzi M 1989Phys. Rev. B39 12630Google Scholar
- Bergman K, Stavola M, Pearton S J and Lopata J 1988Phys. Rev. B37 2770Google Scholar
- Chang K J and Chadi D J 1989Phys. Rev. B40 11644Google Scholar
- Chevallier J, Pajot B, Jalil A, Mostefaui R, Rahbi R and Boisy M C 1988MRS Proc. 104 281Google Scholar
- Denteneer P J H, Van de Walle C G and Pantelides S T 1990Phys. Rev. B41 3885Google Scholar
- Johnson N M 1985Phys. Rev. B31 5525Google Scholar
- Johnson N M, Burnham R D, Street R A and Thornton R C 1986aPhys. Rev. B33 1102Google Scholar
- Pajot B, Newman R C, Murray R, Jalil A, Chevallier J and Azoulay R 1988Phys. Rev. B37 4188Google Scholar
- Pankove J I and Johnson N M (eds) 1990Hydrogen in semiconductors (New York: Academic Press)Google Scholar
- Pearton S J 1982Phys. Status Solidi A72 K73Google Scholar
- Pearton S J, Corbett J W and Stavola M 1992Hydrogen in crystalline semiconductors (Berlin: Springer-Verlag)Google Scholar
- Pearton S J and Tavendale A J 1982Phys. Rev. B26 7105Google Scholar
- Singh U P 1993Effect of hydrogenation on Pd/n-GaAs, Pd/b-GaAs and Pd/n-Si devices, Ph.D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu University, VaranasiGoogle Scholar
- Srivastava P C, Singh U P and Chandra S 1992Solid state ionics: materials and applications (eds) B V R Chowdariet al p. 679Google Scholar
- Stutzmann M and Chevallier J 1991Hydrogen in semiconductors: bulk and surface properties (Netherlands: North-Holland)Google Scholar
- Tripathi D, Srivastava P C and Chandra S 1989Phys. Rev. B39 13420Google Scholar
- Van de Walle C G, Denteneer P J H and Pantelides S T 1989Phys. Rev. B39 10791Google Scholar
- Yaspir A S, Hadizad P, Lu T M, Corelli J C, Corbett J W, Lanford W A and Bokhru H 1988Phys. Rev. B37 8982Google Scholar
- Zhang S B and Chadi D J 1990Phys. Rev. B41 3882Google Scholar