International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 969–985 | Cite as

Lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in a disturbed forest fragment: Activity patterns and time budget

  • Shaily Menon
  • Frank E. Poirier


We describe the activity patterns and time budget of a feral group of lion-tailed macaques that were confined to a disturbed forest fragment of 65 ha and compare the results with those obtained for groups in protected forests. The degraded nature of the study site was reflected in low tree densities, low specific diversity, gaps in the girth distribution of trees, and frequent disturbance by humans. The study group of 43 subjects was twice as large as lion-tailed macaque groups in protected habitats. They spent the most time ranging (34.0%), followed by foraging (23.7%), feeding (17.9%), resting (16.0%), and other activities such as social interactions (8.4%). Monthly variations are significant for all activity categories except ranging. Times spent resting and foraging are negatively correlated (r = −0.5) and show significant seasonal differences. Foraging time was highest from September to November, when key food sources such asCullenia andArtocarpus were absent or marginally available. The study group spent most time (40.4%) at canopy levels between 21 and 30 m. They spent more time each day ranging than resting or feeding and more time terrestrially compared with groups in protected forests. Large group size, poor habitat quality, and seasonal variation in food availability were the major variables affecting their time budget, and these variables accounted for differences from the time budgets of groups in protected forests.

Key words

lion-tailed macaque Macaca silenus forest fragment time budget 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahimaaz, P. (1992). An Eden on the brink of extinction.Hindu Mag. Sunday, Oct. 11.Google Scholar
  2. Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods.Behavior 49: 227–265.Google Scholar
  3. Altmann, S. A. (1987). Impact of locomotor energetics on mammalian foraging.J. Zool., London. 211: 215–225.Google Scholar
  4. Altmann, J., and Muruthi, P. (1988). Differences in daily life between semiprovisioned and wild-feeding baboons.Am. J. Primatol. 15: 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1995). Report of the census and distribution group. Section III. In Kumar, A., Molur, S., and Walker, S. (eds.),Proceedings of the Lion-Tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) Population and Habitat Viability Workshop, Madras, Oct. 11–14, p. 3.Google Scholar
  6. Barton, R. A., Whiten, A., Strum, S. C., Byrne, R. W., and Simpson, A. J. (1992). Habitat use and resource availability in baboons.Anim. Behav. 43: 831–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1974). Activity patterns of red colobus(Colobus badius tephrosceles).Folia Primatol 21: 161–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dunbar, R. I. M (1992). Time: A hidden constraint on the behavioral ecology of baboons.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31: 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eley, R. M, Strum, S. C., Muchem, G., and Reif, G. D. F. (1989). Nutrition, body condition, activity patterns, and parasitism of free-ranging troops of olive baboons(Papio anubis) in Kenya.Am. J. Primatol. 18: 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Green, S., and Minkowski, K. (1977). The lion-tailed monkey and its south Indian rainforest habitat. In Bourne, G. H., and Rainer, H. S. H. (eds.),Primate Conservation, Academic Press, New York. pp. 289–337.Google Scholar
  11. Harris, L. D., McGlothen, M. E., and Manlove, M. N. (1984). Genetic resources and biotic diversity. In Harris, L. D. (ed.),The Fragmented Forest, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp: 93–107.Google Scholar
  12. Isbell, L. A., and Young, T. P. (1993). Social and ecological influences on activity budgets of vervet monkeys, and their implications for group living.Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32: 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iwamoto, T., and Dunbar, R. I. M. (1983). Thermoregulation, habitat quality, and the behavioral ecology of gelada baboons.J. Anim. Ecol. 52: 357–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johns, A. D. (1981). The effects of selective logging on the social structure of resident primates.Malays. Appl. Biol. 10: 221–226.Google Scholar
  15. Johns, A. D. (1983). Wildlife can live with logging.New Sci. 99: 206–211.Google Scholar
  16. Kumar, A. (1987).The Ecology and Population Dynamics of the Lion-Tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in South India, Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  17. Kurup, G.U. (1978). Distribution, habitat, and status survey of the lion-tailed macaque,M. silenus (Linnaeus).J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 75: 321–340.Google Scholar
  18. Kurup, G. U. (1988). The current status of the lion-tailed macaque.Primate Conserv. 9: 34–36.Google Scholar
  19. Kurup, G. U., and Kumar, A. (1993). Time budget and activity patterns of the lion-tailed macaque(Macaca silenus).Int. J. Primatol. 14(1): 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marsh, C. W. (1981a). Time budget of Tana river red colobus.Folia Primatol. 35: 30–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Marsh, C. W. (1981b). Diet choice among red colobus(Colobus badius rufomitratus) on the Tana river, Kenya.Folia Primatol 35: 147–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Menon, S. (1993).Ecology and Conservation of the Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus) in the Landscape Mosaic of the Western Ghats, Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus.Google Scholar
  23. Oates, J. F. (1977). The gueraza and its food. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed),Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behavior in Lemurs, Monkeys, and Apes. Academic Press, London, pp. 276–321.Google Scholar
  24. Singh, M., and Vinanthe, S. (1990). Inter-population differences in the time budgets of bonnet macaques(Macaca radiata).Primates 31: 589–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Southwick, C. H., Richie, T., Taylor, H., Teas, H. J., and Siddiqui, M. F. 1980. Rhesus monkey populations in India and Nepal: Patterns of growth, decline and natural regulation. In: Cohen, M. N., Halpuss, R. S. and Klein, H. G. (eds.),Biosocial Mechanisms of Population Regulation. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. pp. 151–170.Google Scholar
  26. Stacey, P. B. (1986). Group size and foraging efficiency in yellow baboons.Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 18: 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schaik, C. P., van Noordwijk, M. A. de Boer, R. J. and den Tonkelaar, I. (1983). The effect of group size on time budgets and social behavior in wild long-tailed macaques(Macaca fascicularis).Behav. Ecol. and Sociobio. 13:173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Waser, P. M. (1977). Feeding, ranging, and group size in the mangabey(Cercopithecus albigena). In: Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.),Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behavior in Lemurs, Monkeys, and Apes. Academic Press, New York, pp. 182–222.Google Scholar
  29. Watts, D. (1988). Environmental influences on mountain gorilla time budgets.Am. J. of Primatol. 15: 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaily Menon
    • 1
  • Frank E. Poirier
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbus

Personalised recommendations