We examined the use and modification of pestles by tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). In each of two experiments we presented 18 subjects with an apparatus that held sugarcane along with materials that the animals could use as tools. In Experiment 1 we presented the subjects with sticks, and in Experiment 2 we presented them with sticks, stones, paper towels, and food biscuits. Seven subjects used sticks as pestles to break down fiber to and squeeze sap from sugarcane in Experiment 1. Five of them modified sticks for this purpose. In Experiment 2, 10 animals used pestles and sponges, combined tools, and used pestles to mix together different kinds of food. These results provide further evidence of functional convergence for the use and modification of tools byCebus andPan and are consistent with the view that extractive foraging is associated with the tool-using and toolmaking behavior of primates.
capuchin Cebuschimpanzee mortar and pestle Pantool-use
Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1989). Spontaneous tool use and sensorimotor intelligence inCebus compared with other monkeys and apes.Behav. Brain Sci. 12: 561–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S. (1990). Tool use by wildCebus monkeys at Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.Primates 31: 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernandes, M. E. B. (1991). Tool use and predation of oysters(Crassostrea rhizophorae) by the tufted capuchin,Cebus apella, in brackish water mangrove swamp.Primates 32: 529–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, R. B. (1979).The !Kung San, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
McGrew, W. C. (1992).Chimpanzee Material Culture: Implications for Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, S. T., and Gibson, K. R. (1977). Object manipulation, tool use and sensorimotor intelligence as feeding adaptations in Cebus monkeys and great apes.J. Hum. Evol. 6: 623–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar